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 Título: Medicamentos e tratamentos
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Registrado em: 21 Jun 2009, 21:38
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Localização: Saude - Zona Sul
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Apelido: Celso I Suguimoto
Data de Nascimento: 27 Mai 1969
Cidade: São Paulo
País: Brasil
Navegando pela net achei esse artigo excelente com referencia a cada produto químico e suas indicações

http://www.americanaquariumproducts.com ... tion3.html

Citação:

TRICHLORFON (Dylox)
Dimethyl (2,2,2,Trichloro-1-Hydroxyethyl) Phosphonate:

Trichlorfon is an Organophosphate and degrades rapidly (approximately 99% of applied degraded in 2 hours) in alkaline pond water (pH 8.5) at room temperature. But Trichlorfon remains stable in the same pond water held under acidic (pH 5.0) conditions for 2 hours.
Trichlorfon is highly toxic to invertebrates.
DO NOT USE ON FISH THAT ARE CHEMICALLY SENSITIVE to Organophosphates such as: Silver Dollars, Rays, Bala Sharks, Arowanas, Tinfoil Barbs, Hemodias, Piranha, Most Silver Scaled Fish, Marine sharks, Lion Fish.

USE: Trichlorfon is useful for treatment of: Hydra, Lernia (Anchor Worms), Parasitic Copepods, Monodigenetic and Digenetic Flukes, Fish Lice (Argulus), Leeches.
As well Clout may be effective for at least partially exposed nematodes such as camalanus worms.

CLOUT contains Trichlorfon (Dimethyl (2,2,2,Trichloro-1-Hydroxyethyl) Phosphonate), as well as; 4-[P-(dimethylamino)-O-phenylbenzylidene]-2, 5-cyclohexadien-1-xylidene dimethylammonium chloride, 1,2,dimethyl-5-nitroimidazole.

I recommend maintaining a minimum KH of 50 ppm during treatment with Trichlorfon.

Product Resource: CLOUT from AAP

DOSAGE: There is no recommended dosage (other than Freshwater fish acute toxicity= 1.6-180 ppm), refer to manufacturers directions for all products containing Trichlorfon.
Treat again in 14 days to kill new hatchings of Anchor worms.

Use of Trichlorfon for snail treatment; caution be exercised when Trichlorfon is used for the removal of snails (or if snails are present during a parasite treatment). Although I will admit the evidence at this point is anecdotal, but since Trichlorfon is highly toxic to snails, the use of this treatment to kill snails (or in their presence) can rapidly decrease pH (especially in tanks in low KH) as snails rapidly die off (which can release other toxins).
An important fact may be “at play” in that Trichlorfon is more stable in lower pH water, thus retaining its toxicity for a longer period of time which the often high organic decomposition found in tanks with high snail populations may allow a “snow ball” effect of dying snails, increasingly lower pH, and increasing toxicity of Trichlorfon which may result in the death of fish as well.

INTERNAL PARASITE MEDICATIONS; Piperazine, Praziquantel, and Levamisol

Piperazine:

USE: Piperazine is an organic compound used as an anti-parasitic in veterinary medicine, primarily for worms.
Piperazine works through anthelmintic action (used to expel or destroy parasitic worms in the gastro-intestinal tract).
Their mode of action is generally by paralysing parasites, which allows the host body to easily remove or expel the invading organism. This action is mediated by its agonist effects upon the inhibitory GABA (the chief inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate central nervous system.) receptor.
Its selectivity for worms and similar invertebrates is because vertebrates only use GABA in the Central Nervous System and a worms GABA receptor is a different isoform to the vertebrate's one (Isoform: A protein having the same function and similar [or identical sequence], but the product of a different gene and usually).

This product should never be used in the presence of invertebrates as for the reasons outlined above.
Piperazines aquatic uses are restricted to internal parasite control, especially intestinal worms. Piperazine is proven effective for Capillaria Nematode worms that infest the intestines of Angelfish, Discus, some other cichlids, and occasionally other aquarium species.
In the aquarium the disease spreads easily from fish to fish as they consume the eggs of the worms, shed in feces of infected individuals.

Piperazine is found in Pepso Flakes, and the now discontinued Tetra Anti-Parasite Flakes.

Praziquantel:

Praziquantel Fish medicationPraziquantel is an anti-worm, medication. It prevents worms from growing or multiplying in the body.
It is used to treat infections caused by worms. Also internal trematodes, commonly known as flukes and flatworms.

Being a wormer with a wider safety margin, this product can be used for external Flukes when safety of more effective treatments such as Trichlorfon are in question.
Praziquantel is found in PraziPro, API General Cure, and Jungle Parasite Clear.

Praziquantel and Levamisol are found in Jungle Medicated Parasite Food which is an excellent way to deliver this food.
However this product is not currently available, I suggest using Tetra/ Jungle Parasite Guard or API General Cure as a replacement since it contains Praziquantel and Metronidazole which both work well internally for parasites.
Parasite Clear can be used as a medicated fish food soak by using 1/2 tablet for an average 60 gallon bio load medicated fish preparation. Fish food should be soaked for 15 minutes.
After soak, pour entire contents into aquarium. (Additional medication can be added for a full tank treatment; for example with a 30 gallon aquarium, use 1/2 tablet in fish food soak and use the other half plus two more tablets in the aquarium.)
Continue this twice per day for 7-10 days

With products such as PraziPro, the best method of delivery whether for a small aquarium fish or a large pond koi is via a bath.
This bath should be 30-60 minutes and used in an appropriate sized container for the fish involved, such as a 5 gallon bucket or even larger Rubbermade container for a large Koi.

Product Sources:
*PraziPro from AAP which can be used "in tank" or as a bath for Tapeworms, Flatworms, Flukes, etc.
*Tetra/Jungle Parasite Guard
*API General Cure

Levamisol:

Levamisol has a wide range of anti-nematodic (worms) effects. It is efficient in destroying both adult and larvae forms of gastrointestinal and pulmonary nematode parasites in fish such as Camallanus Nematodes (& is one of the best nematode treatments one can use).
It attacks parasites by causing first paralysis and then death of the parasites. Partly decomposed parasites are being eliminated during the first 24 hours since the beginning of the medicine application.

Levamisole is found primarily in wormers for animals at veterinary supply houses and treated a 5 ppm. This was also found in an Aquatronics product, Discomed (a good one at that); no longer available since the demise of what was arguably the best fish treatment manufacturer.
In fact as a side note, purchasing aquarium products at companies such as Amazon, Pet Mountain and many others will likely result in more top notch aquarium information and supply companies disappearing as did Aquatronics, remember this the next time you attempt to save a $1 by purchasing at these types of retailers

Dosage: Refer to product instructions containing these medications (Do NOT use any of these in the presence of invertebrates). If Levamisol cannot be located, the use of Levamisol HCL found in many commercial dog, poultry, cattle, etc. wormers can be substituted.

59 mg of Levamisole HCl is equivalent to 50 mg of pure levamisole.

You will need 2.36 mg/L (or 9 mg/Gallon) of Levamisole HCL, so approximately 90mg of Levamisole HCL will treat 10 gallons (38 liters) with a required 2 ppm concentration.
Since Levamisole can be safely over dosed (with a considerable safety margin), approximately .019 teaspoon will work per 10 gallons.

Be prepared to vacuum gravel/change water to remove dead worms. The nematodes will be giving off toxins as they die.

CAUTION: Do NOT use to treat Detritus Worms usually falsely identified as Planaria. Since these generally harmless worms are mostly substrate composters, their population is usually much higher than the worms one might see on the glass, so a sudden die off from the use of Levamisole can be catastrophic to your fish population.
BETTER is to lower your bio load, less/better fish food feeding, vacuuming of substrate, and other general aquarium maintenance procedures

More on: Aquarium Answers, Nematodes and Trematodes in fish





METHYLENE BLUE (Zinc Free) 2.303% :

A heterocyclic aromatic chemical compound with molecular formula: C16H18ClN3S.

Methylene Blue Aquarium Treatment, for Baths, DipsMethylene Blue is widely used a Redox indicator in chemistry. Solutions of this substance are blue when in an oxidizing environment, but will turn colorless if exposed to a reducing agent.

Since Methylene blue is a redox dye and raises the oxygen consumption of cells, this causes the hydrogen oxidized to be passed on to the oxygen.
Each molecule of the dye is oxidized and reduced about 100 times per second. Thus, while disinfection results from this, methylene blue is also excellent against methemoglobin intoxication.
The therapeutic action of methylene blue on bacteria and other parasites is probably due to its binding effect with cytoplasmic structures within the cell and also its interference with oxidation-reduction processes.

Also due to its oxidative reduction properties, MB can also be used as an indicator to determine if a cell alive or not or if the slime coat (which is ESSENTIAL for fish) is healthy or not. The blue indicator turns colorless in the presence of most healthy cells, slime coat, or active enzymes, HOWEVER the fish will stain blue where injury has occurred, especially to the slime coat (which the loss of would compare to a human have skin peeled off).

Methylene blue is used as a medication for the treatment of methemoglobinemia.
Methemoglobinemia can be caused by high nitrites (and ammonia) in the blood, which happens in fish respiration in water high in ammonia or nitrites. Methemoglobinemia is treated with the use of methylene blue, which restores the hemoglobin to its normal oxygen-carrying state.
Methylene Blue is made from the anti-malarial drug, chloroquine. Malaria is a protozoan similar to the protozoan that causes ich (Ichthyophthirius multifilius) and oodinium, which is why Methylene Blue is useful for parasite and fungal treatments.

As a side note (& this is not to advocate for the use of Methylene Blue in this way), it has now been shown to help Alzheimer's patients slow the progression of Alzheimer's disease for as long as 19 months used in 60 mg. doses three times daily.
Reference: Tau-Targeted Therapy Slows Alzheimer's Progression

USE:
For use to treat Fungus on eggs, Ich, Saprolegnia and some bacteria (although generally not for use in bacterial infections other than as a bath/dip/quarantine therapy).
MB is effective in treatment of some gill diseases, especially from injury such as ammonia burns or fluke damage as it transports oxygen allowing for more gill efficiency and as well aiding in some healing of tissue.

Probably one of the best “first response” treatments when used as part of a fish bath or even dripped directly on a fish for both internal and internal injuries and infections.
Generally used as a 30 minute bath/dip at double dose, in fact Methylene Blue has a wide safety margin and is nontoxic when used as recommended. Fish tolerate relatively high dosages of Methylene Blue without side effects.
Very effective when used as a dip for topical treatment of parasites, fungal, and some infections. When Dylox is not available, this can a useful treatment for anchor worm (especially in goldfish); first carefully remove the anchor worm with tweezers, then dip the affected fish in Methylene blue. When used with a UV sterilizer to kill the swimming stage of the female anchor worm (the female is the parasite), this can be an effective treatment. (Tank can also be treated with Malachite green or malachite green combination during this time for improved effectiveness).

Methylene Blue can also treat some protozoa (such as Oodinium, although only a mild treatment for this but it can be more effective when combined with other chemical treatments such as in Medicated Wonder Shells).

A source for: Medicated Wonder Shells

Methylene Blue is generally safe when used in the presence of snails, crabs, and most shrimps; however cautions should be used.
Methylene Blue is best not used in the presence of most freshwater plants, although short term use will allow most plants to bounce back quickly.

Methylene Blue is also very useful for;

•A dip/bath for potassium cyanide, ammonia, and nitrite poisoning due to Methylene Blue’s affect on Methemoglobinemia (nitrite poisoning).
•Effective as an antidote for other forms of poisoning including damage to the liver and kidneys caused from poisoning (assuming damage is not past the point normal regeneration) due to being reduced by components of the electron transport chain (a chemical reaction between an electron donor and an electron acceptor to the transfer of H+ ions across a membrane, via a set of mediating biochemical Redox reactions).
•For transfer of fish when moving or temporary storage of fish in crowded conditions.
•Treatment of new fish arrivals in a hospital tank, again due to methylene blue’s affect on Methemoglobinemia, bacteria, and protozoa.
•As a medicated bath for Dropsy or any other internal malady such as Swim Bladder problems (as MB is easily tissue absorbed). For many external infections Potassium Permanganate is sometimes a better choice for a bath.
•To prevent egg fungus in breeding tanks (best used in bare bottom breeding tanks)
•A test for Redox Potential in aquariums, as methylene blue will lose color in a reducing environment (you can test this with some powdered Wonder Shell dissolved in water).

Further Reference: THE REDOX POTENTIAL IN AQUARIUMS & PONDS

The bottom line is Methylene Blues is one aquarium treatment/medication NO aquarium keeper should be without, it should always be part of ones basic on hand aquarium keeping tools!

DOSAGE: 1 teaspoon of a 2.303% solution per 10 gallons every other day for 10 days with water changes before each treatment. BEST USED IN A HOSPITAL TANK or bath as previously noted. Methylene blue can destroy nitrifying bacteria and plants in the display aquarium.

My preferred use of Methylene Blue is a bath.
To prepare this bath I use 1 teaspoon 2.303% solution per 5 gallons (double dose) in a bath of aquarium water from the tank the fish you wish to treat came from, I usually use about a ½ gallon of water, however you may use less.
Measurement of the Methylene Blue does not need to be precise as this bath should be used for about 30 minutes (although do not grossly overdose).
You may also add salts to your bath to improve effectiveness for certain problems when preparing baths for freshwater fish (such as swim bladder, dropsy or unknown problems). Generally I would use 1 teaspoon of sodium chloride (regular salt) per gallon and occasionally ¼ teaspoon of Epsom Salts (Magnesium Sulfate) per gallon.

Make sure you keep the water in a warm area, as in a cold room the water temperature can drop rapidly which would stress the fish. Do NOT pour this water back into your display aquarium when finished. This can be performed twice per day. This bath is useful for fresh AND saltwater fish.
For more about Fish Baths, please refer to this article:
Fish Baths, Dips; How to Perform

This bath is VERY effective for ammonia/nitrite poisoning, Swim Bladder problems, and is helpful for many other internal/systemic infections. MB baths are a good treatment when nothing else is working and/or little is known as to why as fish is acting abnormally (the MB bath does not always work, but it is a relatively safe method vs. indiscriminately dumping other medications into a display aquarium).

In the case of swim bladder infection or problems the MB bath is often the only treatment required other than possible correcting diet and adding more electrolytes (calcium, magnesium, etc. to your aquarium.

An alternative to Methylene Blue for adding to your aquarium or for fish transport is SeaChem StressGuard.
StressGuard contains active colloidal protein agents that actively seeks out any wounds, abrasions, or places where exposed proteins are and attaches to this area to help directly deliver the disinfectant in the product and start the healing process.
This is excellent for fish that are injured and can be used full strength in bath as well without the harmful side effect of bio filter destruction that is possible with Methylene Blue.
HOWEVER, it does not have the anti-parasitic, and oxygen carrying abilities of Methylene Blue and should not be used if these properties are needed.

Product Resources:
*Kordon Methylene Blue
*Hikari Bio-Bandage
*SeaChem StressGuard

References:
*Salt use in freshwater aquariums
*Aquarium Chemistry; Calcium, Magnesium, and more

Contraindications

*Do NOT use with Tetracycline or Erythromycin
*Do NOT use in an aquarium system without an established healthy bio filter, and even then use with caution.
*Wait 30 minutes to add after use of any Redox Reducing water conditioner, which is most any including SeaChem Prime, Kordon Novaqua, Kordon Amquel, Jungle Start Right, API Stress Coat, etc., as these can partially remove MB.
*Do NOT use in the presence of Marine Aquarium Anemones, Corals, or Cephlapods (Octopus, etc).

NOTES: Methylene Blue is removed by activated carbon filtration. It will also be absorbed by porous materials such as rock, coral and wood.
Caution should be used in a display tank at full dose (not usually a problem when part of buffered chemical formulations such as Medicated Wonder Shells when used as directed).

Further references:
http://ag.arizona.edu/azaqua/ista/ista6 ... df/188.pdf

MEBROMIN (Merbromin/ Mercurochrome):

USE: A topical antiseptic and moderate oxidizer used for injuries, cuts exposed wounds (minor), and exposed multi cell parasites such as Anchor Worm.
It is no longer sold in the USA because of its mercury content (although this has never been scientifically established to be a problem), but it is still available from some sites and was distributed from Aquatronics in many of their aquarium products before their unfortunate demise (due to questionable business practices of others).

This is a great product in my experience if it can be found.



ACRIFLAVIN HYDROCHLORIDE 3.84% solution:

Acriflavin in aquarium fish treatmentUSE: An antiseptic agent for the skin and mucous membranes. It is known to inhibit mitochondriogenesis.

Generally used for treatment of fungal infections such as mouth fungus, fin and tail rot, fungus, saprolegnia, and mild egg fungus (not as strong as Methylene Blue for egg fungus, but safer for main display tank use).
Mildly effective for skin parasites such as oodinium (velvet), sliminess of skin, and ich (although a very mild treatment for Ich, FW or SW).
Acriflavin is effective for mild gram negative bacterial infections.

DOSAGE: 1 teaspoon of a 3.84% solution per 10 gallons every other day for 10 days. Combines well with copper sulfate and malachite green.

Acriflavin is found in:
*API Fungus Cure
*Medicated Wonder Shells; ONLY at AAP (these are NOT available in the Weco Wonder Shells sold elsewhere)

Contraindications

*Wait 30 minutes to add after use of any Redox Reducing water conditioner, which is most any including SeaChem Prime, Kordon Novaqua, Kordon Amquel, Jungle Start Right, API Stress Coat, etc.

MALACHITE GREEN (Also known as Analine Green, Victoria Green):

A bacteriological stain and topical antiseptic or to treat parasites, and fungal infections in fish and fish eggs.
The chemical formula is C23H25ClN2

Despite similar elements to Methylene Blue, Malachite Green is VERY different in its properties, effects on fish, disease and aquatic environment compared to Methylene Blue.
Malachite green is generally much more effective in treatment of external & even some internal parasites than MB, it is generally equal to MB in cases of Saprolegnia (Fungus).
Malachite Green is much harsher on many sensitive fish (such as catfish) than MB and does not have the blood oxygen enhancing capabilities of Methylene Blue nor is it useful as an antiseptic, however Malachite Green does NOT have the gram positive bacteriostatic properties Methylene Blue has and thus is not hard on nitrifying bacteria, despite some claims to the contrary which is of worth while note when treating an established aquarium with Malachite Green.

It is noteworthy that Malachite Green will stain your aquarium silicone (usually permanently), but this is not damaging to the silicone nor does it leech back out (which is the reason the stain is permanent).
Malachite Green is also quickly absorbed by organic matter in an aquarium or pond, so it is usually rendered in effective in a low bio load aquarium within 48 hours and in as little as 12-24 hours in a high bio-load pond.

Product Source: Premium Aquarium Repair Silicone

Malachite GreenUSE:
For treatment and control of various external parasites of freshwater and marine fishes.
When used as directed the medication will control or prevent the following common protozoan parasites:

•Ichthyophthinus (freshwater Ich) exhibited as fine “salt like” white spots that usually first appear on the fins.
•Costia (Ichthyobodo). Not to be confused with ich, is a parasite that can live dormant on healthy fish (primarily their gills), then under certain conditions (poor water conditions, stress, etc.), reproduce rapidly.
Symptoms of an outbreak include Heavy and labored “breathing” flashing and rubbing, skin cloudiness caused by excess mucus.
•Chilodonella, *Ambiphyra, *Cryptocaryon (marine Ich), *Epistylis, *Oodinium and Trichodina, *Plistophora (best combined with formalin at 1/2 strength)

Malachite Green is also effective against common external fungal infections of fishes and eggs which include Achlya and Saprolegnia.
The Malachite Green can and is occasionally used for marine ich (Cryptocaryon), this is usually a poor choice for effectiveness and toxicity to many invertebrate (I have never seen fish toxicity demonstrated at normal treatment levels).

DOSAGE: 1 teaspoon of a 0.038% solution per 10 gallons every other day for 10-14 days. Or 1 drop of .50% solution per gallon every other day for 10- 14 days. 25% water changes are recommended before each dose. Use half dose for scale-less and delicate fish such as Clown Loaches and Neon Tetras. Double dose for marine aquariums.
As well, the use of Triple Sulfa with Malachite Green (or combinations products with Malachite Green as the primary ingredient) can buffer the effects of Malachite Green in sensitive fish such as Clown Loaches and many Catfish.
The use of Triple Sulfa with Malachite Green also provides the benefit of increased secondary infection protection; especially Fungus (Saprolegnia) & Columnaris (both are common secondary infections to Ich).

Note; Malachite green is more toxic at lower ph and low hardness, and is best used with a KH of 50 and GH of 100 ppm OR HIGHER.
Also it should be noted that older formulas of Malachite Green that contain high amounts of zinc are also much more toxic (most newer products have much less or 0).
Medicated Wonder Shells contain Malachite Green (and other chemical treatments) in a buffered form that is ideal for mild to moderate ich infections especially where low pH, KH, & GH are a problem.

Product Reference:
Triple Sulfa


Finally, as to often thrown around anecdotal comments about the carcinogenic properties of Malachite Green, these are at best inconclusive, especially at normal therapeutic doses.
This scientific research article deals with this in detail: Toxicology and Carcinogenesis studies of Malachite Green-
http://ntp-server.niehs.nih.gov/files/5 ... okmark.pdf (Link is no longer valid)

In the one study used to state that Malachite Green is dangerous has this statement: "The data relating to the carcinogenicity of malachite green are extremely limited"
More importantly that amount of MG used to achieve the most toxic results was 1,200 ppm fed daily for 28 days.
THIS IS 24 TIMES THE HIGHEST THERAPEUTIC DOSE USED FOR FISH, USUALLY PERFOMED FOR ONLY 10 DAYS!
To draw the conclusions many draw from this study is ludicrous, yet many in the hobby have cut and paste this so much, most now believe that Malachite Green is highly toxic and carcinogenic at the low doses used for fish treatments.

Many will also cite the US governments ban on Malachite Green for food fish use as proof of toxicity of Malachite Green, however this is not proof rather precautionary as the above referenced article points out that most toxic effects from MG come from vastly higher than normal doses (although I would not bath yourself in Malachite Green, but who does). Please read the facts!!!!
One also might compare this to the State of California’s ban on Piranha out of fear they will accidentally find their way into lakes and reproduce, unfortunately there is absolutely no evidence for this whatsoever, yet the ban persists.

Further Reference:
Toxicity Studies of Malachite Green Chloride

Malachite Green can be combined with Formalin or Acriflavin.

Here are few products containing Malachite Green:
Quick Cure
A very effective combination of Malachite Green and Formalin.

Another excellent product with malachite green is:
ParaGuard
ParaGuard employs a proprietary, synergistic blend of aldehydes, malachite green and fish protective polymers.

Medicated Wonder Shells; ONLY at AAP
These contain Malachite Green, in a lower slow release formula that is safe for most fish and add essential minerals as well, however these medicated mineral blocks are best as a follow up or prevention treatment for Ich (they are a good first treatment for Velvet)

Contraindications

*Wait 30 minutes to add after use of any Redox Reducing water conditioner, which is most any including SeaChem Prime, Kordon Novaqua, Kordon Amquel, Jungle Start Right, API Stress Coat, etc.
*Do not use full strength with sensitive fish such as Loaches and most catfish (Buffering with Triple Sulfa is recommended)
*Do not use with Tetracycline or Erythromycin

Recommended Reading:
IDENTIFICATION & TREATMENT FRESHWATER AND SALTWATER ICH

FORMALIN (3% formaldehyde):

USE: For treatment and control of the diseases caused by protozoan and monogenetic trematodes of freshwater and marine aquarium fishes.
Formalin will control or help prevent diseases of fishes caused by the following disease organisms:
*Ichthyophthirius (freshwater "ich"), *Costia (Ichthyobodo), *Chilodonella, *Ambiphyra, *Cryptocaryon (marine "ich"), *Epistylis, *Oodinium, *Amyloodinium, and *Trichodina.
Formalin is the first choice treatment or should be in a medication mix for Costia:
Reference: Costia in Fish

Formalin is also often effective against the common external fungal infections of fishes and their eggs caused by fungus (Saprolegnia).
Reference: Saprolegnia

Formalin or Formalin based products can also be effective in bacterial infections, although primarily gram positive, which make up a small percentage of aquatic bacterial infections.

DOSAGE: 1 teaspoon of a 3% solution per 10 gallons every other day for 10 days. Formalin combines well with malachite green and I recommend this combination for a more effective treatment.
Formalin can deplete oxygen in an aquarium (or pond) with a high bio load, so consider adding an air stone or a power head with an air diffuser.
Formalin can be harsh on gill tissue, so be careful to not overdose.

Further Reference: Bio Load in Aquarium or Pond

As a bath 0.50 to 0.95 mLs per gallon (0.15 to 0.25 mLs per liter) for up to 60 minutes is an effective bath treatment (with less danger to the nitrifying bacterial bed).

Formalin is more toxic in soft, acidic water so buffering the water with a MINIMUM KH and GH of 50 ppm and 100 ppm respectively (or higher) is recommended. Regular Wonder Shells are an effective means to buffer a freshwater aquarium.
I have seen some anecdotal comments about formalin lowering dissolved oxygen levels, especially in ponds. This statement is based on a large die off minute life forms in the pond from treatment.
This is incorrectly based on formalin being the only treatment that can cause this.
ANY treatment that kills protozoans or other similar life forms as well as many anti-bacterials can cause similar effects when the bio load is past what the pond can support. This is no more a problem with formalin than with any other treatment in a high bio load/ plankton environment.

Quick Cure is a very effective combination of Malachite Green and Formalin.

A newer and in my opinion (& experience) formulation that contains a formalin product is SeaChem ParaGuard which contains a proprietary, synergistic blend of aldehydes which is less toxic than other formalin/formaldehyde formulas. The form of Formalin used in ParaGuard is the safest/most effective formalin I have used to date (also many of my colleagues have noted similar results).

Product Resource:
*Regular Wonder Shells; unique version only from AAP
*Quick Cure
*SeaChem ParaGuard

Contraindications

*Do no use with fresh open wounds in fish
Often many will use Formalin or products containing Formalin on fish with open sores/wounds and then kill their already weak fish. This improper use of the medication then results in the medication getting blamed when in fact it was used improperly.

COPPER SULFATE, CITRATE, & IONIZED:

Cupramine Marine or Freshwater Ionic Copper TreatmentUSE: For treatment of freshwater and marine ich (Cryptocaryon), Oodinium, external parasites, fungus, shimmy, and even algae (especially in ponds).
Copper Sulfate in various forms can be effective when used properly and carefully.
Aquarisol is an aquarium treatment standby many long time aquarium keepers have used as both a preventative and treatment for many years; HOWEVER this particular product is no longer available.

Although not a first choice for freshwater ich (malachite green/formalin is generally more effective), Copper Sulfate is a very effective quarantine choice for ich and velvet prevention for new freshwater fish, especially when combined with Methylene Blue AND used in a bare (no gravel) tank.
Copper used properly does not generally harm biological filters as quinine based treatments can (that are often used a copper substitutes in treating Marine Oodinium, Brooklynella, Cryptocaryon), however studies have shown bactericidal properties of Copper Sulfate on certain gram positive pathogens, so for this reason Copper should be used with care (or not at all in thanks that are not fully cycled.
See: Control of Listeria & other Bacteria in facilities utilizing copper drains.

While often not requiring constant testing for levels as with other forms of copper, Chelated Copper Sulfate products can be difficult to remove from marine aquariums that have crushed coral and coral based rock as coral skeletons and crushed coral readily absorb copper and then slowly leech it back out. For this reason chelated copper sulfate based medications are often best used in hospital tanks when it comes to saltwater use.
For freshwater use, this is not as much a problem in my experience.

HOWEVER Ionized Copper such as SeaChem Cupramine is more easily removed, even with Carbon (which cannot remove chelated copper treatments). Ionized Copper being much more stable and more easily removed would be the copper treatment of choice in marine/saltwater aquariums, especially if a copper must be used in the main display aquarium.
Cupramine does require the use of a copper test kit so as to maintain therapeutic levels

Product Sources:
*SeaChem Cupramine
*Fritz/Mardel CopperSafe
*Copper Test Kit

One the more effective treatments for freshwater Velvet (Piscinoodinium pillulare), as copper will attack both swimming stage and the dormant stage (as this is when the parasite uses its chloroplasts to produce nutrients, and the copper destroys these).

Copper is the treatment of choice as far as effectiveness goes for Marine Ich (Cryptocaryon) and Marine Oodinium, unfortunately it cannot be used with invertebrates and often takes up to a month to remove traces from a marine display tank treated with copper before it is safe for invertebrates. For an alternative, Metronidazole has been shown to be an antibiotic that is generally effective for marine ich (although not as effective as copper and even less so against Oodinium).

Copper Sulfate (such as Mardel CopperSafe) is also effective for treatment of Shimmy in livebearers, especially mollies that are kept in low salt freshwater aquariums (the addition if positive mineral ions is also essential for the treatment of Livebearer Shimmy).
Since Mardel CopperSafe is chelated, it does not require much (if any) testing when used as directed and is often the better choice for beginners and for use in freshwater treatments such as the before mentioned "Shimmies" in livebearers.

Product Resource: Mardel Copper Safe

DOSAGE: Treat according to your solution to bring your copper level to .15 -.20 ppm for Oodinium/Brooklynella (and most freshwater applications) and .20- .25 ppm for Crytocaryon.
Generally chelated copper is easier to maintain these levels without repeated testing and follow up dosing.
Soluble copper salts work well in freshwater only.

It is also noteworthy as to the use of copper in marine aquariums (especially tanks with any calcium based rock or substrate) that the amount of copper you will need to add will be high initially, but go down over subsequent days as no more copper is absorbed by the coral or even the minerals suspended in the water. This is important to note in treating display tanks, but is not as notable in bare hospital tanks; and for this reason copper should never be used in saltwater without a copper test kit on hand!

Please note that copper, basically kills the parasite by poisoning it more than the fish, so never overdose.
Do not use with snails and other invertebrates, do not use in reef aquariums, and note; when used as an algaecide, the copper is absorbed by the algae then released when it dies.
Removal of chelated copper can be difficult, only EDTA (Ethylene Diamine Tetra Acidic Acid) and water changes remove it, NOT carbon.

For an effective treatment for ich, fungus, and especially Velvet, Medicated Wonder Shells are extremely for Velvet & Livebearer Shimmy in particular as they have three of the most effective ingredients for the treatment of Velvet & Shimmy; Copper Sulfate, Acriflavin, & Methylene Blue. They also add electrolytes and calcium, essential for proper healing and osmoregulation

(see this article for the importance of calcium cations: Aquarium Chemistry, GH, pH, KH, Calcium.)

Contraindications

*Wait 2-4 hours to add after use of any Redox Reducing water conditioner, which is most any including SeaChem Prime, Kordon Novaqua, Kordon Amquel, Jungle Start Right, API Stress Coat, etc.
*Do NOT use in an aquarium system without an established healthy bio filter.
*Do not mix with Sulfa based treatments/medications
*Do not use copper based treatments with any iron oxide containing products

POTASSIUM PERMANGANATE KMnO4:

Potassium Permanganate for aquarium or pond fish treatmentThe permanganate ion is a strong oxidizing agent.
Potassium Permanganate is a strong oxidizer that when added to water will give a deep purple color that will slowly turn brown/yellow as it oxidizes. The more dissolved organics, the more quickly the change of color to brown/yellow which indicates the oxidation properties are mostly spent.

USE:

•Being an oxidizer, Potassium Permanganate is useful for water clarification and odor elimination; often where a bacterial cloud is present.
Potassium Permanganate should only be used in established cycled aquariums.

Potassium Permanganate can be used to reduce dangerous high organic levels in freshwater ponds and aquariums, especially “Bacterial Blooms” (Grey cloudy tanks).
It can be used as a special-purpose freshwater conditioner for ponds and aquariums, because of its ability to improve water quality by oxidation of excessive dissolved and suspended organics. The chronic presence of excessive dissolved organics in the water promotes the growth of potential disease-causing bacteria such as Aeromonas, and as well lower KH and pH.
However it should be noted that initial oxidation produces Carbon Dioxide which will initially lower pH/KH and I recommend a water change a day after the use of Potassium Permanganate for the purpose of oxidation of organics in ponds or aquariums.

•Probably the best use for Potassium Permanganate is for fish baths or swabbing infections caused by bacterium such as Columnaris.
For these uses, a fish keeper would use in a bath at double recommended tank strength for 30 minutes.

Product Resource: Potassium Permanganate

Do NOT combine with Methylene Blue in baths.
MB is a better choice where stress has occurred or ammonia and nitrite poisoning has occurred. Whereas Potassium Permanganate is the better choice for Flukes, external nematodes, Anchor worms, Columnaris or Aeromonas/Vibrio infections.
HOWEVER, even the use for Columnaris and the other before mentioned "diseases', it should be noted that is the fish are weakened severely or if the fish is very sensitive fish (such as scaleless fish like Knife fish), Methylene Blue may still be the better choice even if less effective, as the oxidizing properties of Potassium Permanganate may be too much for these fish (1/2 strength may be another option).

Please see this article for more about fish baths/dips:
“How to Perform a Medicated Fish Bath or Dip”

•Potassium Permanganate can be used as a plant dip for snails at double recommended tank strength for 10 -20 minutes. In the tank it can be used for Fluke treatment and is mildly effective for snail eradication (not a recommended snail removal method from my experience).

•Potassium Permanganate is the best choice for a net dip, as it is both effective, yet not nearly as dangerous as other effective alternatives such as bleach if some accidentally finds its way into the aquarium.
A second quick dip in water containing any chlorine removing water conditioner such as Start Right or Prime is suggested (not 100% required) to remove excess PP prior to use in the aquarium.

•Potassium Permanganate is also an excellent “second choice” for direct (full strength) application to fish eye infections (cloudy eyes, “Fish Cataracts”).
Hospital tank treatment with Erythromycin is also recommended.
Silver Nitrate is the first choice for eye problems, however this product is nearly impossible to find and requires special handling and should be followed by Potassium Dichromate. The strong oxidizing properties of Potassium Permanganate makes it useful for some serious wounds where you want to “seal” the wound, such as a fish with a missing eye, but do NOT use on open 'bloody' wounds.

•Another use is for mild Fluke (Trematode) infestations.
Reference: “Trematodes & Nematodes in Fish”)

If preparing your own (dry) Potassium Permanganate treatment, use 2 ppm per liter of water for in tank (pond) treatments and up to 10 ppm per liter for 10 -30 minute baths.
For already prepared Potassium Permanganate (in liquid form) such as Jungle's Clear Water, use double the recommended normal tank dosage for a bath.

Product Source: Jungle Clear Water

Care must be exercised when using this product, whatever level dosage is used. The action of Potassium Permanganate proceed more rapidly under acidic water conditions and higher temperatures, while the action is less rapid at higher pH and water hardness.

Also do not combine with de-chlorinators as these products are reducers (usually container Sodium Thiosulfate or other reducers) that will immediately remove Potassium Permanganate since it is an oxidizer.
Please keep in mind that this is an oxidizer than can and will destroy beneficial bacteria, so use with care if you must treat a main display tank (which is why I prefer baths or hospital tanks).
An aquarist/Pond Keeper should also note that Potassium Permanganate suppresses photosynthesis in plants in the water, although this can be beneficial, especially in ponds with large amounts of decomposing organics as this will increase oxygen levels in the pond, particularly at night. In this process Potassium Permanganate reduces biological oxygen demand, and improves water quality and clarity.

In case of accidental overdose with Potassium Permanganate, a 2 to 3x dose of Prime in the tank will immediately remove this, or if a fish reacts adversely after swabbing a sore, lesion, etc. an immediate dip into water treated with Prime (or similar water conditioners such as Start Right, Amquel, Stress Coat, etc.) at 3 x strength will immediately stop the reaction.

*Potassium Permanganate can also be used for an experiment of testing you water conditioners chlorine removal properties. Add a double strength solution to a container of water, then add your water conditioner at recommended dose; the purple color of the Potassium Permanganate should immediately disappear indicating the effectiveness of your water conditioner and demonstrating how quickly it can remove chlorine (which is an oxidizer like Potassium Permanganate, while the water conditioner is a reducer often containing Sodium Thiosulfate).

Further References:
*SeaChem Prime water conditioner
*Jungle Start Right
*Aquarium Water Conditioner Information

Two products that contain Potassium Permanganate are found in this Jungle Product:
Jungle Clear Water/Potassium Permanganate

Contraindications

*DO NOT combine with Sulfuric Acid as this can produce explosive gases that can spontaneously combust alcohol nearby.

*Do NOT use/mix with ANY other medication treatment including Methylene Blue other than sodium chloride (salt)

*Wait 2 to 4 hours to add after use of any Redox Reducing water conditioner, which is most any including SeaChem Prime, Kordon Novaqua, Kordon Amquel, Jungle Start Right, API Stress Coat, etc.

*Care should used that any direct application does not get in fish gills or any serious necrosis of fish tissue as potassium permanganate will burn the gills and further exasperate any necrosis of tissue.


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For SeaChem Products, please follow this link:

SeaChem Aquarium Products
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Select Kordon & Mardel Treatments
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Aquarium Pharmaceuticals Aquarium Treatments
Products include the popular remedies Pimafix and Tetracycline


Wonder Shells
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For all your UV-C Replacement bulb needs for Ultraviolet Sterilizers, Clarifiers, and even Purifiers, see this web page:
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TMC Reverse Osmosis Filter System with TDS Meter
The TMC Advanced Aquarium RO Water Filter system includes a TDS meter and operates at less than 2 cents per gallon

Aquarium Heaters
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Volcanic Rock Bio Filter Media
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HYDROGEN PEROXIDE; H2O2:

Hydrogen Peroxide is a strong oxidizer with a Redox of +1.82.

Hydrogen peroxide is commonly used as a disinfectant for cleaning wounds in people.
For Aquarium/Pond use, Hydrogen peroxide has been used in aquaculture to add oxygen to water (often prior to shipping) or as an immersion (bath) treatment against many different disease-causing organisms, including external parasites, bacteria, and fungi, on different species and life-stages of fish.
Algae control is another use for Hydrogen Peroxide, in particular Blue/Green and Black Beard algae

Algae Resource:
Blue/Green Cyanobateria Control, Eradication
BBA Algae Control, Eradication

Since fish (& other vertebrate animal) cells produce one or another form of catalase (which is a Redox Reducer) for protection against effects of free radicals (which an oxidizer such as Hydrogen Peroxide is), dilute H2O2 is rapidly decomposed by catalase into oxygen and water, before it can do damage to the fish cell. That is the reason H2O2 will bubble when applied to an open cut.
However many lower animals such as shrimp do not appear to produce this catalase in enough quantity (if at all), so the use Hydrogen Peroxide in the presence of invertebrates such as Shrimp should be avoided.

Hydrogen Peroxide decomposes rapidly into water and oxygen, however in concentrations of Hydrogen Peroxide (not generally household), this can be explosive in a sealed container (due to concentrated oxygen buildup, not from hydrogen).
This rapid decomposition into water and oxygen is what makes the use of Hydrogen Peroxide plausible considering its high oxidation properties.
This is also how Hydrogen Peroxide is useful in adding oxygen to fish prior to shipping (although care MUST be exercised so as to not over dose, which would be lethal.
As well continued use of Hydro Peroxide can stunt growth and result in more damage to a fish in the form of lower immunity offsetting any help from oxidation of disease pathogens (due to high Redox Oxidation).

Household Hydrogen Peroxide is generally a solution of about 3%, while PEROX-AID® (Eka Chemicals, Marietta, Georgia) is 35%.

USE/DOSAGE

Hydrogen Peroxide being a strong oxidizer as with chlorine, can damage gills and other epidermal tissues on fish, especially adults.
Gouramis and other Labyrinth fish seem to be especially sensitive to Hydrogen Peroxide and use with these fish should be avoided.
The use with eggs to prevent Saprolegnia is generally the safest, although baths for Saprolegnia and Columnaris treatment is another use, although not as safe based on my experience and research.

The table below shows dosages of the Hydrogen Peroxide product; 35% PEROX-AID®
Please Click to enlarge:
(from Use of Hydrogen Peroxide in Finfish Aquaculture)

NOTE: There are 396,100 mg of hydrogen peroxide per L of 35%
PEROX-AID®.
NOTE: There are 1000 mL in 1 L. The liters are converted to milliliters to allow for easier measuring of the 35%
PEROX-AID® liquid for treatment.
For example, if you need to use a treatment concentration of 500 mg/L and will treat 150 liters of water in a closed system, then:
For the use of 3% Household Hydrogen Peroxide (for ornamental fish ONLY), consider that it is only 3% so you would multiply dosages by a multiple of about 11 times.

As well here are a few other conversions to consider (use accurate teaspoons, not silverware):
*Teaspoon = 4.929 mL
*Tablespoon = .5 fl. oz. = 14.787 mL

*One cubic centimeter of water weighs one gram, and 1,000 grams of water makes a liter. This means that the cubic centimeter/milligram (cc or mg.) and the milliliter (1/1000 of a liter) (ml) are exactly the same thing - if you're measuring water (which Hydrogen Peroxide is pretty much the same weight as water).

As a Plant Dip for algae

Hydrogen Peroxide can be used as a plant dip or bath for algae such as BBA (Black Beard algae) or Cyanobacteria.
Some will add this directly to the tank as well at a rate of 2 oz. of 3% Hydrogen Peroxide per 10 gallons. HOWEVER this is best done without shrimp (such as Cherry Shrimp) present, as this will often kill them!

As well the use of a syringe of dropper with un-diluted 3% household HP can be used to directly apply to BBA or Cyanobacteria.
The same cautions should be exercised with shrimp present. If shrimp are present, I suggest moving them to another tank, if only temporarily for 1/2 day.

Please see the Algae Control section of this article: Aquarium Plants; Information from Basic to Advanced
Or these more in depth articles:
*Cyanobacteria in Aquariums or Ponds
*Aquarium Algae, Identification & Control

Please see this article from the University of Florida for MUCH more about Hydrogen Peroxide for use with fish: Use of Hydrogen Peroxide in Finfish Aquaculture

To Eradicate Dinoflagellate "Algae" growth

Hydrogen Peroxide can also be used for growths in marine aquariums, at a generally accepted rate of 1 mL per 10 gallons (38L) every day.
It should be noted that I have not used Hydrogen Peroxide for Dinoflagellate growths/blooms, but I know of colleagues that have with mixed results.

A method I have used and suggest is using a Micron Filter of at least 20 microns to trap any Dinoflagellates in the water column. Coarse pre-filtration before the micron filter would also be suggested.
As well, I would combine this with the use of a high dwell time UV Sterilizer such as the Vecton or Aqua UV after the micron filter (or in place of). This can also improve results.
Be aware that if you use a lower quality, low dwell time UV Sterilizer, especially the many commonly sold with medium pressure UV lamps, it will often take up to 4 times the wattage to do the same job.

Further Reference (from www.thereeftank.com)
Dosing H2O2 for Dino

More about UV Sterilizer Use: UV Sterilization; Facts & Information

Contraindications

*Do NOT use/mix with ANY other medication treatment other than sodium chloride (salt)
*Not advised to use directly in aquarium
*Do NOT use in the presence of shrimp & most snails
*Use in the presence of all other invertebrates should be avoided


_________________
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 Título: Re: Medicamentos e tratamentos
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Citação:
By Carl Strohmeyer-PAMR 35+ years experience
Updated 1/26/15

I will examine a few “homeopathic” treatments that I have used; as well as information about the symptoms and possible treatment of Lymphocystis

The benefit of most organic “natural” remedies is although these may not be as strong/effective as synthetic/chemical treatments this type of remedy generally has a much larger safety margin with much less side effects and basically non existent expiration times (I have used Melafix effectively years past the so-called “best used date”).





PIMENTA EXTRACT (PIMAFIX);

Pimafix organic aquarium and pond treatment for fungus, mild gram negative bacterial infections USE: Pimenta extract is effective for a broad range of mild bacterial and fungal diseases that typically afflict fish and other aquatic animals.
Fish diseases that may be treated in accordance with this include bacterial fish diseases, such as fin and tail rot, mouth fungus (sometimes caused by the bacterium Flavobacterium columnaris); fungal fish diseases (such as those caused by microorganisms of the genera Saprolegnia and Achyle) and the like.

Pimenta Extract has shown to be more effective against gram negative bacterial infections which are more common in aquatic infections. This generally makes Pimafix a better choice over Melafix, although they can be combined for more broad range effectiveness.


Pimenta Plant The Pimenta extract treatment has been shown in Lab tests to be effective in curing such difficult-to-treat fish diseases, like ragged fins and bacterial dropsy (early stages).
Since the Pimenta extract treatment has been shown in Lab Tests to have broad-spectrum effectiveness against many diseases affecting fish and other aquatic animals, precise identification of specific bacterial or fungal pathogens causing the disease is not usually necessary.
Please note though that sterile environment lab tests not always a real world indicator of how a treatment or process will work, based on my results I would only suggest this for mild to some moderate infections in an aquarium/pond.

Pimafix is often effective where its sister product, Melafix is not. Since they have different anti-microbial properties, combining both is safe and occasionally more effective.

My own use and notes of this product show it to be a useful product (often even more useful when combined with Melafix) for MILD bacterial infections or fungal (Saprolegnia) infections.
I have never seen any harm to fish or nitrifying bacteria with this product, and it is what I often use or recommend for new fish, when possible infections are noted, or sometimes after a stressful situation for the fish has occurred.

This all said, Pimafix is not for serious infections, so even though this is a good first response treatment (again with a possible combination with Melafix), I do NOT recommend Pimafix when the infection is serious or if Pimafix is not effecting a cure, a stronger medication such as Kanamycin, Minocycline or Nitrofurazone SHOULD be used.

Please see this article for more about these medications:
Aquarium Medications; Antibiotics, Antimicrobials

Product References:
*SeaChem Kanamycin
*Nitrofurazone
*Pimafix, from AAP

Possible Dangers:

One caution I would offer for the use of Pimafix is for marine aquariums; although I have not observed any problems, human and other animal studies have shown that the active ingredient in Pimafix is highly toxic when ingested and since most marine fish drink the water around them to regulate osmotic pressure in their bodies, the potential of over use exists in marine aquaria. As well, I would most definitely not use with marine invertebrates!

Another caution with Pimafix is that it contains refined Clove Oil (refined so as to dissolve in water).
Many aquarists warn against the use of Pimafix for this reason, HOWEVER I think this is a knee jerk reaction with NO scientific studies to back this up.
Of course continued use of Pimafix with no water changes and/or use of carbon for removal could certainly allow for dangerous Eugenol (the active ingredient in clove oil) buildup, but then ANY treatment when abused can be dangerous!

I found one such reaction in an aquarium forum by a person who seems quite knowledgeable, but in this case is making non-scientific anecdotal claims based not in controlled studies, but the knowledge that Clove oil can be and is lethal at certain dosage.

An example of this type of thinking as noted in the previous paragraph, is the use of Tylenol (acetometaphin) in humans; which used properly is effective for headache relief and more, but when over used or worse, when combined with alcohol can be lethal to one’s liver.
My point is to use this or ANY treatment carefully with routine water changes between doses.


DOSAGE: Refer to Pimafix (link) instructions on how to use Pimafix


MELALUCA TEA, TTO (Tea Tree Oil), cajeput oil found in MELAFIX:

Melafix organic aquarium and pond treatment for wounds, torn fins, ulcers USE: Repairs damaged fins, ulcers, mild eye infections, and open wounds, often caused by rough handling, fighting, and occasionally “ammonia burns”, although a fish bath or hospital tank with Methylene Blue is often more effective.
Melaluca tea extract also promotes re-growth of damaged tissue and fins when used as an antiseptic.

References:
*Fish Bath Information
*Methylene Blue from AAP

About Melaleuca
Melaleuca tea leaves Melaleuca alternifolia is a plant that belongs to the family Myrtaceae, of which aboriginals of New South Wales (Australia) have long used as an antiseptic.
The oil is a natural antimicrobial allelochemics Phytoncide obtained from the leaves of the tea tree contains marked germicidal activity owing to the presence of terpunen-4-ol and is useful in eliminating germs.
Other constituents in the oil extracted from this plant like alpha-terpineol and linalool are also play a major role in maintaining the anti-microbial activities.

The oil is acquired from the tea tree leaves through a process of steam refinement.
While a third of the oil contains different terpene hydrocarbons like pinene, terpinene and cymene, the remaining part comprises mainly of oxygenated terpenes.
The terpenes are mainly terpinen-4-ol that may form up to 60 percent of the total oil derived from the tea tree leaves.

However it is noteworthy that Melafix employs the TTO found in the related Melaleuca leucadendron tree (AKA the Cajeput tree) found in SE Asia, New Guinea and surrounding areas.
This is important, as there is much less scientific studies backing up the use of TTO (tea tree oil) found in Melaleuca leucadendron vs. Melaleuca alternifolia.
This admittedly leads me to question why API chose to use this form of TTO vs. the better documented Melaleuca alternifolia.



More about Aquatic uses of Melafix;

Melafix is sometimes effective against early stages of Aeromonas bacteria which often attack open wounds, sores, and abrasions.
However the main use of Melaluca (Melafix) is as an antiseptic or bactericidal for MILD wounds, torn fins, mild eye infections, etc. on fish for which it is a good product to have on hand as a first response treatment as one would for a human antiseptic such as "Neosporin".

As well it is noteworthy that Melafix (TTO) is more useful in “battling” Aeromonas by aiding in healing the fish prior to this opportunistic gram negative bacterium even gets a “foot hold” (especially since TTO has little proven effectiveness against full blown gram negative infections).
More about: Aeromonas bacteria

As to eye infections, Melafix is an excellent first response to eye infections and often is all that is needed for mild case, however more serious case generally should included medicated baths, direct applications of medications to the eye (such as Methylene Blue or Potassium Permanganate), along with in tank treatment with stronger gram positive medications such as Erythromycin.

Eye Infection Reference:
Aquarium Answers, Eye Infections, Streptococcus

Product Reference:
Melafix from AAP
Potassium Permanganate
Erythromycin from AAP

Melaluca tends to be more effective against gram positive bacteria (which is often the cause of eye infections), which are less common in aquatic diseases, making Melafix a lesser choice to Pimafix which is more effective against gram negative bacteria (as noted earlier, they can be combined).

More importantly, MULTIPLE excellent University level human and veterinary studies (most out of Australia) show that Tea Tree oil (used to manufacture Melafix) can be an effective EXTERNAL treatment against many bacterium.
HOWEVER there is little evidence of internal effectiveness (it is toxic internally as well), so the use of Melafix to treat systemic infections (which aquatic infections often are) such as Septicemia is TOTALLY useless!

For this reason I still have to scratch my head as to the use & recommendation of Melafix to treat these infections as all scientific evidence says NO, so those who claim it helped are making anecdotal statements, that are likely explained by other reasons/answers.

I have used Melafix quite a bit with mixed results.
Sometimes though this product gets reviews that are very inaccurate from both sides; some claim it is useless (it is not) others will recommend it for everything of which this product has many limits.
I think this is where I want to pull my hair out as those who over recommend Melafix as well as those who say it is useless really understand what Melafix really works best on or should be used for.

An absurd claim put out by an old Goldfish site that is present in some Google Groups is that Melafix will burn the gills of injured fish; I have NEVER seen ANY evidence of this and quite the opposite I have found it soothing to the fish with wounds (see the university study link that disproves this common internet myth).
If you doubt this try pouring some Melafix on an open sore you have and see what happens!

First Response use of Melafix; I am attempting make the point in this article that Melafix or Melafix combined with Pimafix is a good first response treatment for mild/moderate injuries, torn fins, damaged gills (often from high ammonia).
However I urge readers to exercise more scientific and less anecdotal thinking when using Melafix.

Since Melafix has been proven scientifically to be primarily effective only on gram positive bacterium which are far less often a cause of serious aquarium and pond bacterial infections than gram negative infections such as Columnaris, the use of this product for said infections is totally useless. Gram negative Pseudomonas MAY be the only possible exception but this is not generally a common cause of virulent infections in fish. More importantly, my use of test samples from virulent fish sores in the 1990s showed not activity by Melafix against the the bacterium involved.
HOWEVER since many gram positive infections can be first invaders in injuries, sores, torn fins, etc., the immediate use of Melafix can help prevent opportunistic bacteria such as Aeromonas or Columnaris to get started in the first place. Use as a first response product is where I have found Melafix most useful and why I feel it should be part of of every fish keepers on hand arsenal, I just caution its use for most full blown fish infections (though combining with Pimafix can improve results in some instances).

Infection Resources:
Aeromonas Bacterial infections in aquariums, ponds
Columnaris, Fungus, Saprolegnia


My point about thinking scientifically means that if, for example you had a fish with symptoms of Aeromonas (which is an extremely opportunistic infection that often strikes in less than optimum conditions) and then changed water and performed other maintenance tasks that improved water conditions, while at the same time used Melafix to treat the fish, then your fish recovered; this is NOT proof that the Melafix cured your fish. More than likely the water improvement tasks helped the fish fight the infection themselves.
Making such a claim is an example of anecdotal information as this is not a scientific method of making accurate assessments of aquarium treatments, unfortunately this is how these types of aquatic urban myths get started and are then spread via non or poorly moderated forums such as Yahoo Answers.

Even with gram positive infections such as Aquatic Streptococcus which Melafix may be effective for (in mild cases or in conjunction with other treatment methods), the potential user should note that the ingredients in Melafix are not very strong against a virulent Streptococcus infection.

Compare Melafix to Bactine in use for fishMelafix’s properties as an antimicrobial are limited (at least at the concentrations found in Melafix). However I do find it useful for a first response to injury of all kinds to fish where I HAVE observed some good results here and often the fish are more calm (IMO) after use of this product.
The best way to think of Melafix (Melaluca) is to compare it to human use of Neosporin or antiseptics like Bactine after a cut, abrasion or similar.
Melafix has similar properties and uses and like Neosporin or Bactine and similarly does not take the place of stronger treatments for more serious infections or injuries.

An analogy so as to better understand how and what to use Melafix for is these:


•Would you use Bactine for an abrasion, mild bite/sting or cut?
Yes, as would an aquarist with Melafix

•Would you use Bactine for this same cut that developed a Staph infection?
No, nor would you use Melafix, you would advance to a stronger antibiotic such as Kanamycin or Erythromycin

•Would you use Bactine if you were severely injured by shrapnel, leaving a gaping wound?
No, nor would you use Melafix for a severe injury (a medicated bath, possible with salts, Methylene Blue, Kanamycin, etc. would be the first course followed by a hospital tank with an antibiotic such as Kanamycin & Nitrofurazone or Triple Sulfa).

As with Pimafix (and even more so since it is effective for less bacterium), I do not recommend Melafix for serious infections, rather a first line of defense as already noted and in combination with the slightly more effective Pimafix.

Possible Dangers:

As with Pimafix, I would be careful in Marine Aquarium use, although with fish generally this is not a problem (although effectiveness is questionable since marine fish diseases even more so than freshwater diseases tend toward gram negative). With marine reef tanks I would not recommend the use of Melafix.

Many claim that Melafix can cause problems with Labyrinth fish and Pencil Fish, which research has shown to be a half truth.
I have used and tested Melafix on many Labyrinth fish (in particular Bettas) and not found these results as claimed.
Further more, one aquarium website incorrectly stated that the "oils" in both Pimafix and Melafix are dangerous to Labyrinth due to the need to "breath air".

I can correct this incorrect statement in that part of the patent for Melafix (& Pimafix) is the process of refining of the oil OUT of both these products.
This can EASILY be proved by adding Melafix or Pimafix to the water and watching for it to float on the water, which it does not.
HOWEVER before implying this person in that aquarium website does not know what she is talking about, Melafix can and does cause foaming, which at least in theory could be a problem with certain fish.
I would also refer to my analogy I used to explain anecdotal concerns with Pimafix as to the use of Tylenol in humans.

I would venture a guess that those who have had problems are certainly not imagining it, however that some sort of chemical reaction happened (again I refer to my Tylenol/alcohol combination analogy I made in the Pimafix section).
My reason for making this statement is that I and others in my profession have used Melafix with Labyrinth fish/Pencil fish and have not observed fatal reactions.

Current Research/Hypothesis

Currently the best scientific information shows that there may be link between the tea tree oil in Melafix and toxicity in Labyrinth fish/Pencil fish, but this link is NOT what many in aquatic forums are anecdotally assuming.
The best information points to liver function, which would explain why some (such as myself) have not observed this problems in our tests, as admittedly the early studies did not initially focus on over doses or chemistry variables in the water.

Basically Tea Tree oil (melaleuca, Melaleuca alternifolia) is a phenol-containing essential oil.
Its active ingredients are cyclic terpenes which have a similar structure and action to turpentine (a known liver toxin).
The acute toxicity for the major terpenic compounds (linalool, ocimene, alpha-terpinene, 1,8-cineole, terpinolene, camphene) is 2 - 5 g/kg body weight, which is considered a moderately toxic range.
From a toxicologic point of view Tea Tree oil is comparable to oil of turpentine, which is readily absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and then finds its way to the liver.
What may be the problem is that under certain conditions Melafix may be toxic to the liver in Labyrinth fish/Pencil fish.

My current hypothesis (based on early tests), is that since the best research shows similarities between TTO and Turpentine (both are terpenes, but then so is beta carotene), is that in an acidic environment, in particular an environment with nitric acid (which is quite possible in an aquarium), the chemical reaction can produce chemicals that may harm the liver in certain fish that have a tendency to ingest the water around them such as Labyrinth fish/Pencil fish (via the surface).

Certain terpenes such as turpentine are actually explosive when combined with nitric acid (this chemical reaction is used in rocket fuels!).
On a small scale (aquarium environment) some similar reaction may be happening that with certain fish can cause death. This would also explain why this problem has never been noted in marine fish even though they constantly drink the water around them, since marine fish are always kept in an alkaline environment.

This would also explain why this reaction has not been observed in my tests with Melafix (even at double doses) with Labyrinth fish/Pencil fish since I conducted these tests in a balanced Redox mineral/electrolyte environment.

At this point my advice is to maintain a non acidic environment, proper mineralization and Redox, which is something I have been a big proponent of for many years now based on scientific evidence of the benefits therein.
Since most evidence points to this conclusion, this may be the link in this problem, especially since the TTO found in Melafix (and all terpenes) is a known Redox reducer and an acidic/oxidizing environment of ANY cause could cause possible undesirable effects.

Another evidence pointing toward this conclusion is that based in emails, browsing of Forums (Betta forums in particular), and speaking with clients and colleagues; is that in almost every case where Melafix has been a problem the person using this product was incorrectly keeping the Betta in an acidic, poorly mineralized, poor Redox environment of which they were unfortunately given misguided advice to do so.

This also brings up an important point about Melafix use in general for all fish and that is that both Melafix and Pimafix are acidic and negatively affect Redox Balance, so while these products certainly have their place in aquarium use, continued use will most definitely cause issues with Redox Balance and therefore long term fish immunity.
The use of products such as Wonder Shells can counteract this problem and these should definitely be used with Melafix (if only fragments of AAP Wonder Shells), however these are not the solution for long term use of Melafix and therefore use of Melafix for longer than 10 days should be avoided.

Product Resource: Wonder Shells; Unique Versions only from AAP

I recommend reading these articles:
Importance of Minerals, Electrolytes, GH, KH in Aquariums
Aquarium/Pond Redox

PLEASE reference this excellent university level study for more about the positives and negatives of Tea Tree oil found in Melafix:
Tea Tree Oil: a Review of Antimicrobial and Other Medicinal Properties

Also this excellent fact sheet from the University of Western Australia:
Tea tree oil has broad-spectrum in vitro antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral activity

DOSAGE: Refer to Melafix instructions or to purchase, please see this site:
API Treatments; Melafix

Further Resources:
http://www.rirdc.gov.au/reports/TTO/01-10.pdf
US Patent for Melafix
Is Gram Positive Tea Tree Oil Safe for Pets

Article Research Sponsor


NAPHTHOQUINONES

Naphthoquinones are compounds present in several families of higher plants.
Their molecular structures confer Redox properties, and they are involved in multiple biological oxidative processes.

In folk medicine plants containing Naphthoquinones (such as Henna) have been employed for the treatment of various diseases.
The two-electron reduction of quinones is catalyzed by oxidoreductase and generates hydroquinones. This enzyme reduces toxic, reactive and unstable quinones, bypassing the creation of toxic intermediates (e.g. a semiquinone radical), and sparing the cell from ROS formation.


A relatively new product that contains Naphthoquinones is Kordon Herbal Ich Attack & Rid Fungus.
This product stops infectious and external parasitic invasions from getting started and in turn prevents many secondary infections.
As well Herbal Ich Attack (aka Rid Fungus) attacks fungi in fresh water that include the species of Saprolegnia, Achlya, Leptomitus, Pythium, as well as marine (saltwater) Exophiala.

Ich-Attack is effective against protozoan parasites on fishes while safe for most aquatic invertebrates, whether fresh or brackish water, or marine.
These comprise dozens of genera and species of fish-infecting species in fresh and salt water, each kind with distinctive characteristics in their infections.
The groups include "white spot disease" and other ciliates (Ichthyophthirius in fresh water, and Cryptocaryon, Brooklynella, Trichodina in marine), and "sporozoan parasites" for which many infectors of aquarium fish are marine.

Dinoflagellate infections treated by Ich-Attack are photosynthetic single-celled organisms which include Oodinium (velvet disease), Amyloodinium (coral fish disease), Tetrahymena, as well as other infectious dinoflagellates.

Kordon Herbal Ich-Attack (Rid-Fungus) is especially suitable for tropical marine aquariums containing aquatic invertebrates, it also treats their fungal infections, while not adversely affecting coral reef animals, including corals, anemones, starfish, snails, crabs, and shrimp.

Herbal Ich-Attack was led/created by Dr. Michael Tierra (a well known herbalist whose books on natural botanical treatments are widely read) whose work to determine which herbals can be used together to cover a wide spectrum of external fungal and other aquatic diseases.

*As with Usnea, well controlled in depth tests of products containing Naphthoquinones such as Herbal Ich Attack have not been performed that I know of as of writing this update, however albeit somewhat anecdotal feedback from reliable aquarium maintenance professionals shows positive results, although these results also showed this treatment to not be as effective as similar chemical treatments such as SeaChem ParaGuard.
This feedback from these professionals has this product used with shrimp, snails, & crabs, but 100% safety has not been confirmed with delicate corals or octopi.

Product Sources:
Herbal Ich Attack (aka Rid Fungus) from AAP
SeaChem ParaGuard

References:
http://www.thefreelibrary.com/Antimicro ... 0173925919
http://www.mdpi.com/1420-3049/14/11/4570/pdf




THERAPEUTIC OILS (Kordon Fish Therapy Bath)
Organic Natural Aquarium Medications, Kordon Fish Therapy BathTherapeutic oils have become very popular among many natural human health care professionals and have spun off such companies as "Young Living Essential Oils" and "DoTERRA Essential Oils", so use in fish is a natural progression in my view.
Evidences are still forth coming though, so use with caution and realize that established and proven safe methods such as Methylene Blue for fish baths still might be the better choice.

The therapeutic oils found in Kordon's Fish Therapy Bath have some science and proven use behind them (oils include citrus, neem, and lavender oils). Most notably the use of citrus oils to treat termites, fleas, etc. Lavender Oil also has repellant abilities.
It is however noteworthy that Lavenders ability to repel parasites is not proven, however Lavenders ability to calm does have more evidences to back it up and this can certainly be useful when giving a fish bath.

References:
Home Remedies for Fleas
Lavender- WebMD

Neem oil is reported to be effective as an insecticide as well as some anti-inflammation properties, anti-fingal and limited anti-bacterial (possibly tuberculosis), although anti-bacterial activity seems to indicate more effectiveness toward gram positive bacterium and most fish diseases are gram negative. It is noteworthy though that most evidences for neem oil are inconclusive and more importantly in young humans, internal absorption can be fatal.

References:
Neem Oil- Wikipedia
Neem Oil- WebMD

Where does this leave us with this product (Kordon Fish Therapy Bath in particular)?
While I am personally just beginning tests with this product, with cautious use it should be a reasonable alternative for Methylene Blue Fish baths, but should not be combined with any other medications unlike Methylene Blue.
I see its primary use for parasite prevention or treatment, not bacterial infection prevention or treatment.
Saprolegnia treatment/prevention may also be a viable use.

I would not substitute Kordon Fish Therapy Bath for Methylene Blue for fish suffering from ammonia poisoning, low oxygen damage, pH shock, or other bath medications such as Potassium Permanganate or combinations of Methylene Blue with Furan 2/Kanaplex or Maracyn Plus for more serious problems.

Product Resource: Kordon Fish Therapy Bath from AAP

Further Fish Bath Information:
Fish Baths, Swabs, Dips

Oregon grape root plant

OREGON GRAPE ROOT, as an aquarium (& pond) treatment;
Oregon Grape Root is one of those "wonder herbs" with actual science to back it up, unlike many "natural treatments". What is not proven is its effectiveness in aquarium or pond fish use, but based on the science around how this herb works, likely this will become an effective addition to many other proven aquarium treatments.

Oregon Grape Root has potential to aid in antibiotic effectiveness in treatment of difficult to treat diseases such as Columnaris as it contains a specific multi drug resistance pump inhibitor (MDR Inhibitor).
Resistant bacteria work by utilizing a pumping mechanism in its cell that when antibiotics enter that cell the pump immediately pumps out the antibiotics so it can have no effect on the MRSA cell. Oregon Grape Root works by blocking the bacteria's ability to pump out antibiotics.

Oregon Grape Root is a bitter herb with cooling, draining and detoxifying benefits.
Oregon grape root is also referred to as a “berberine-containing plant” which is a natural anti-bacterial.

Potential Treatment for: •Eye infections
•External wounds
•Mouth infections
•Inflamation
•Intestinal Parasites
•Digestive issues, including Dropsy

AQUARIUM USE:
Suggested use is opening a 400 mg Oregon Grape Root Capsule into 10 gallons of water along with the antibiotics such as Nitrofurazone and Kanamycin. This can be added to the aquarium or a fish bath.
Use in conjunction with other medications is suggested in most moderate to serious infections.

Reference: Oregon Grape Root - It could save the world

Online Source for Oregon Grape Root (not affiliated with AAP):
*Solaray Oregon Grape Root Capsules
*Nutraceutical International Corp. (a leading provider of Oregon Grape Root)



USNEA LICHEN, usnic acid aquarium (& pond) treatment;

Please note that we have a more in depth article dealing with just Usnea for aquarium pond treatment, please visit this link:
USNEA; Using usnic acid as a fish remedy

USE;
Usnea is a lichen common to the temperate forests of the Pacific Northwest of the USA.

I have found it effective for bacterial (gram negative, but primarily positive), fungal and even parasites such ich.
A natural antibiotic it has proven effective against gram positive bacteria and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (making Usnea a great alternative to Isoniazid).
Scientists believe that usnic acid works by disrupting cellular metabolism, either by preventing the formation of ATP which is the cells' energy source or by the stopping the action of oxidative phosphorylization.

Usnea may also be a better choice than the drug metronidazole (as per human studies) for parasites and anaerobic bacterial treatments in aquariums.
Usnea shows promise for gill infections due to the Mucilage (gluey substance produced by most plants and some microorganisms) contained in the Usnea which has been shown to have healing properties in areas of respiration.

Usnea also shows promise as a safe albeit mild Cryptocaryon (saltwater ich) treatment for Marine Aquariums.
It has similar anti-parasite properties to metronidazole and pepper for marine cryptocaryon. (Usnea actually has a peppery taste when brewed).


More information about Usnea;
Test tube studies have suggested an anti-cancer and an anti-viral activity for usnic acid. This may also make Usnea useful for the hard to treat aquatic viral disease; Lymphocystis (which is usually not fatal in otherwise healthy fish).

Symptoms of Lymphocystis:
* Whitish patches or irregular growths on the fish most commonly on the tail and fins.
* These eventually become quite large and give rise to the name Cauliflower Disease.


This remedy is still in the testing phase, but early results when used in a "Fish Bath" are promising.
The Usnea Lichen is proving to be the most effective natural remedy early in my testing.

This lichen is boiled like a tea then added to a fish bath or occasionally directly to the aquarium.
The only dangers that have been established (in human studies) are in rare cases liver damage, which would make this a poor choice for dropsy.
Also use caution in Marine Treatment with sensitive invertebrates such as hard coral and cephalopods.


DOSAGE: None established yet. I boil one small sprig in 6 oz. of water.
Use 1 tablespoon per 6 oz. of this preparation for a 1 quart bath. Or add this 6 oz of "tea" to every 10-20 gallons of water every day until cure is effective plus an additional 2 days.

For my full article about Usnea, please visit this link:
USNEA; Using usnic acid as a fish remedy


If interested in some Usnea, you can purchase (.2 oz, enough for 200 gallons of treatment for $2.49) via the PayPal Pay Now button Below.




Amount
.2 oz, $2.49 USD .4 oz. $4.99 USD .8 oz $9.49 USD 1 oz $17.99 USD


Microbe-Lift Herbtana Organic Aquarium Treatment

OTHERS; Such as Microbe-Lift Herbtana & Artemiss
There are many other organic/natural treatments coming into the aquarium/pond keeping marketplace.
Many unfortunately do not have much testing and worse do not list ingredients which then leaves questions as to whether any claimed effectiveness is simply the placebo effect or real.

Microbe-Lift's Herbtana is a good example of such a product that has little or no controlled testing and no published ingredients, but has some positive anecdotal reviews.
Since this product claims improved immune function, I would have to ask how?
Since it actually lowers Redox Balance being an acid and oxidizer it is impossible to improve immunity since it is a proven fact (including well funded human studies) that a healthy body is alkaline, not acid with a more reducing Redox.
From Microbe-Lifts own website:
Will help boost the natural immune system of the fish with no risk of building up future resistance as can occur when antibiotics are used"
This is simply impossible based on what we already know about this product and Redox

The fact this product is sold at discounters including Amazon, not professional aquarium supply companies does not lend itself to credibility when anecdotal reviews and lack of published ingredients are all factored in.

While I would not write off this product as there may may be other modes of operation other than immune system improvement, I will have to say for now that many controlled tests support products such as Herbal Ich Attack with its known ingredients as well as the even more 100s of tests supporting the use of Wonder Shells and Medicated Wonder Shells for both immune improvement and disease prevention (also with KNOWN proven ingredients).
Microbe-Lift needs to "step up to the plate" and publish their ingredients if they want this product to be taken seriously by professionals, rather than simply selling via discounters.


_________________
ReefCelsois III

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AQUARIUM MEDICATIONS & TREATMENTS INTRODUCTION (Home)





By Carl Strohmeyer-PAMR 35+ years experience
Updated 5/18/15

TRIPLE SULFA (Sulfamerazine, Sulfamethazine, Sulfathiazole) & Other Sulfa Based Medications:

Sulfas are considered all anti-bacterials (antimicrobials).
These drugs are bacteriostatic, meaning they inhibit the growth of the bacteria but do not kill them.
Sulfas are generally most effective against aerobic gram-negative organisms, and occasionally effective against anaerobic gram negative bacteria, but are not reliable against aerobic gram-positive bacterium such as Streptococcus
More on: Streptococcus Eye Infection

Sulfa drugs arrest cell growth by inhibiting the synthesis of folic acid, a component required for growth by bacteria. Folic acid is a large molecule and is unable to enter bacterial cells, so the bacteria must synthesize the compound intracellularly.
Animal cells are unable to synthesize folic acid and it must be provided in the diet. For this reason sulfa drugs are not toxic to animal cells.

Sulfa drugs are among the oldest in the medicine, the first being a sulfonamide was trade named Prontosil dating back to experiments by Bayer in 1932.
For aquatic use Sulfa are often maligned by many aquarists as not effective or out of date, yet in reality Triple Sulfa often will work where other antibiotics fail and sometimes with less side effects as well (this is not to say Sulfas do not have side effects as they are somewhat toxic, producing blood abnormalities and kidney damage when indiscriminately used).
Sulfas also do not tend to be as sensitive to poor use (meaning not following the full treatment regimen).

USE: A relatively broad spectrum antibacterial medication; for fin and tail rot, mouth fungus and clamped or collapsed fins, Columnaris (mild to moderate infections ONLY), and hemorrhagic septicemia (although not effective to Aeromonas infections of the gut).
Triple Sulfa is very effective for basic Fin Rot infections with Pseudomonas as the bacterial pathogen. It is also useful for damaged fins caused by fin nipping.
An old standby that is still useful and can be used in combination with Malachite Green (especially effective in combination with MG at ½ strength when treating Ich in scale less fish) or Acriflavin (do not combine with copper sulfate).
It is noteworthy that Sulfas are more effective at higher pH levels.

How to treat: Fin Rot in Bettas and other Fish

Sulfas can also be safely used with other mild broad spectrum parasite/fungal treatments to boost anti bacterial effectiveness,; a good example would be the Medicated Wonder Shell.
As well Triple Sulfa has minimal impact on nitrifying bio filters when used correctly

Product Reference: Medicated Wonder Shell

DOSAGE: 250 mg per 10 gallons every 48 hours (24 hours for severe issues) with a 25% water change before each treatment. Treat for a minimum of 10 days.

Sulfa is found in:
*Aquarium Pharmaceuticals; Triple Sulfa at AAP
*Mardel Maracyn Plus (contains Sulfamethazine and Trimethoprim)

Contraindications

*Best not used concurrently with other antibiotics/antimicrobials, although use with chemical dyes such as malachite green is safe and even advised.
*Do not use with copper based medications



TRIMETHOPRIM:

Trimethoprim is a bacteriostatic antibiotic effective for many aerobic gram negative bacterium including Pseudomonas & Aeromonas. Since Pseudomonas & Aeromonas are common causes of opportunistic fin rot in fish (assuming the causes of this opportunity are negated), this drug or a combination that includes it may be a good alternative treatment.
In fact when combined with some Sulfa based medications, it produced a synergism or addition in 85% (similar to how Kanamycin and Nitrofurazone produce a synergism that treats Columnaris and Aeromonas that when treated alone, often results in failure).

However Trimethoprim has no proven effectiveness for anaerobic infections, so if the causes of an Aeromonas is anaerobic (which most are), then this or antibiotics containing Trimethoprim would be a poor choice.

USE: A good alternative to 100% sulfas, although a more harsh antibiotic toward nitrifying bacteria.
Especially useful for fin and tail rot.

Contraindications

*Can be very harsh to nitrifying bacteria in an aquarium, do not over dose and use only in well established aquariums.
*Can cause Thrombocytopenia (lowering of blood platelets), so this is a poor choice if fish have large wounds or are suffering from septicemia. A better choice then would be a pure Sulfa product or other medication combination.

Trimethoprim is found in:
*Mardel Maracyn Plus (contains Sulfamethazine and Trimethoprim)

Reference:
Combined Activity of Sulfamethoxazole, Trimethoprim,

TETRACYCLINE HYDROCHLORIDE:

API TetracyclineUSE: Tetracycline is the name of a large class of antibiotics produced by Streptomyces bacteria.
These include Tetracycline Hydrochloride (to be discussed here) and several others which, although closely related, often yield very different results (although side effects may be very similar).
With this in mind it is important to not confuse these very similar but often very different in results antibiotics. Unfortunately this is done all too often, especially for the treatment of Columnaris (Flexibacter).
Minocyline which can be effective (not my first choice for Columnaris though) is often confused with Tetracycline Hydrochloride.

Tetracycline Hydrochloride is a naturally occurring Tetracycline used in the treatment of bacterial infections that are generally gram-positive such as Streptococcus and SOME gram-negative infections in fish.
It interferes with the production of proteins that the bacteria need to multiply and divide (bacteriostatic). However many bacterial pathogens have developed resistance to Tetracycline Hydrochloride.

Tetracycline Hydrochloride is generally more effective for aerobic bacteria (which Columnaris is only aerobic however Aeromonas and many other pathogens can be anaerobic).
It should also be noted as to Columnaris that although it is aerobic, it is also gram negative, whereas Tetracycline Hydrochloride is less effective for gram negative bacterium.
It is noteworthy that a member of the tetracycline family; Minocycline hydrochloride is more effective for gram negative bacteria than Tetracycline Hydrochloride.

Uses include (generally gram positive causes of these symptoms); fin and tail rot (split, ragged and deteriorating fin and/or tail), Popeye (protruding eyes, may be cloudy or hazy), gill disease (swollen, discolored gills, gasping for air and a decrease in activity) and secondary infections.

Tetracycline Hydrochloride mode of action is as a protein synthesis inhibitor via an aminoacyl-tRNA binding mechanism to the 30S subunit. Mode of resistance is the loss of cell wall permeability.
Note, Tetracycline can lower red blood cell count and cause anemia, because of this I would not use with injured fish, as this is the last thing you want to do with a bleeding fish.

Tetracycline becomes dangerous past its expiration date. While most prescription drugs lose potency SLOWLY after their expiration dates, tetracycline can become toxic over time.

This can be a useful antibiotic, especially when others fail, however Tetracycline is more useful in warm blooded animals (humans and Veterinary) than in fish.
I have often found the side effects to outweigh the benefits in aquarium use (such as anemia and interfering with nitrifying bacteria, often producing a “brown foam” on the surface of the aquarium), especially for marine aquariums.
For this reason (destruction of nitrifying bacteria) I strongly recommend against the combined use of Tetracycline AND Erythromycin (the side effects of these two antibiotics combined will generally negate any benefits obtained when used in combination).

Another note with Tetracycline Hydrochloride is that it is easily absorbed where calcium is present in larger quantities, which often renders this antibiotic useless in saltwater and high GH (hard water) freshwater aquariums.

DOSAGE: 250- 500 mg per 20 gallons of water. Every 48 hours (24 hours for severe issues) with a 25% water change before each treatment. This product will not work in water with a ph above 7.5- NOT FOR MARINE USE! (also not effective in freshwater aquariums with a pH above 7.6)

Tetracycline Hydrochloride is found in:
API Pro Series Tetracycline at AAP

Disease References:
*Columnaris (Flexibacter)
*Streptococcus in Fish, Eye Infections

Contraindications

*Best not used concurrently with other antibiotics or chemical treatments, although use in a bath with Methylene Blue is OK.
*Do NOT use with fish suffering from ammonia/nitrite poisoning or with fish with low red blood cell count (anemia) such as suffering from an acute gill infestation of Velvet, Flukes or similar parasites that attacks the gills and thus renders a fish anemic
*Do not use with any iron oxide containing products

MINOCYCLINE:

Maracyn 2, MinocyclineUSE: Minocycline hydrochloride, also known as Minocycline, is a member of the broad spectrum tetracycline antibiotics, and has a broader spectrum than the other members, especially as to gram negative bacteria where Minocyline has more activity (albeit still limited effectiveness when compared to other gram negative antibiotics).

Minocycline is also synthetic whereas Tetracycline Hydrochloride and Oxytetracyline are naturally occurring. It should also be noted that Minocycline maintains serum levels 2-4 times that of most other tetracyclines (150 mg giving 16 times the activity levels compared to 250 mg of Tetracycline Hydrochloride at 24-48 hours).

It has excellent anti-inflammatory properties which makes it a good choice for septicemia, although for Viral Septicemia there is no effective treatment, only prevention.
Minocycline is also effective for fin/tail rot and OCCASIONALLY pop eye and is sometimes suggested for dropsy. However as for Dropsy I strongly recommend against this as this antibiotic can cause severe kidney damage, which is the last thing you want with a possible Dropsy case.

For more about Dropsy, please see this article:
Betta with Dropsy

Minocycline is also skin absorbed like Kanamycin (although not as well) which can increase effectiveness. It is also nontoxic to invertebrates but should not be used in Marine aquaria.

Minocycline (like other Tetracyclines) is easily absorbed by calcium, making this a POOR choice for saltwater or high GH freshwater aquariums (such as African Cichlids, livebearers), in these cases Kanamycin is the better choice.

The above point is often missed by well meaning aquarists (often in many forums that love to recommend Maracyn-2).
The reason is that although Maracyn–Two (Minocycline) is a good product/medication when used in the right conditions for the right problem (of which it is relatively wide spectrum), the problem is that most aquariums I have either encountered or have been sent the water parameters for (emailed, etc.) have too high of a mineral level (GH over 200) for Minocycline to be truly effective.
In fact there in lies the problem in that often these same minerals that render Maracyn Two less effective, can IMPROVE the fish’ natural ability to fight disease (via better osmoregulation & Redox).
See more: Do Fish Drink, Osmorgulation

Another note about the dangers of Minocycline as with Tetracycline, is that Minocycline becomes dangerous past its expiration date, in other words expired Minocycline can become more toxic over time.

With these points in mind, generally the ONLY aquaria I recommend Minocycline in are Amazon River tanks such as Discus Aquariums.

DOSAGE: Maracyn-Two is the primary source for this anti-biotic, follow directions given by Mardel (manufacturer of Maracyn –2)

References:
Minocycline Hydrochloride, PDF
Minocycline

Contraindications

*Best not used concurrently with other antibiotics or chemical treatments, although use in a bath with Methylene Blue is OK
*Do not use with any iron oxide containing products

QUININE SUFATE (& Hydrochloride):

Quinine Sulfate which is a human anti malarial drug, works by causing a pH elevation in intracellular organelles of parasites, this is thought to disrupt the intracellular transport of membrane components and macromolecules, and phospholipase activity leading to cellular failure of these parasites.

Chloroquine or Chloroquine Phosphate is a related drug to Quinine Sulfate that is more effective from my experience (but also easily and fatally overdosed). When combined with Pyrimethamines as in the now unavailable product "Marex" by Aquatronics, it can be very effective for treatment of Oodinium.

USE: Quinine Sulfate is useful for resistant strains of Ich (especially on scale less fish), as well as Protozoan caused sliminess of the skin and Rams disease (whirling disease).
Also useful for resistant strains of Hexamita when combined with Metronidazole.

DOSAGE : 250 mg per 10 gallons of water. Once a day for 4-5 days. Do a 25% water change before each treatment. Quinine Hydrochloride is generally more effective when available.

OXYTETRACYCLINE HYDROCHLORIDE:

Oxytetracycline is a naturally occurring Tetracycline that is more broad spectrum than Tetracycline Hydrochloride (but not as broad spectrum as Minocycline, especially as to gram negative bacteria).

USE: Oxytetracycline will treat gram-positive and some gram-negative bacteria.
Marine ulcer disease, cold water disease, bacterial hemorrhagic septicemia (Symptoms: Red streaks in body and fins), or redness in the body. Also open sores or loss of scales and mouth fungus.

DOSAGE: 250- 500 mg teaspoon per 20 gallons every 48 hours (24 hours for severe problems) with a 50% water change before each treatment. This antibiotic is best used mixed in with food, especially if your ph is above 8.0.

Contraindications

*Best not used concurrently with other antibiotics or chemical treatments, although use in a bath with Methylene Blue is OK.
*Do not use with fish suffering from ammonia/nitrite poisoning or with fish with low red blood cell count (anemia) such as suffering from an acute gill infestation of Velvet, Flukes or similar parasites that attacks the gills and thus renders a fish anemic
*Do not use with any iron oxide containing products

NITROFURAZONE:

USE: Bactericidal for some gram-positive and many gram-negative bacteria causing disease in fresh water and marine fish.
Nitrofurazone inhibits several bacterial enzymes, especially those involved in the aerobic and anaerobic degradation of glucose and pyruvate.
This synthetic antibacterial is effective for control of Flexibacter/Columnaris such as these symptoms: Fuzzy, thin, white coating on the body and fins.

It is best combined with Kanamycin for effective treatment of Columnaris pathogens, in fact the COMBINATION of Nitrofurazone and Kanamycin is often the only effective treatment for Columnaris.
Nitrofurazone is also often effective for Aeromonas such as these symptoms: fish have blisters forming on the skin that are full of a clear to yellowish fluid, these blisters may turn into large sores.
As well Nitrofurazone is often effective for the related Vibrio and similar bacterial species.

Further Reference Information:
*Columnaris (Flexibacter) in Fish
*Aeromonas, Vibrio, Furunculosis in Fish

Nitrofurazone is particularly useful for control of minor topical skin infections of freshwater & marine fishes that have not become systemic. As well, Nitrofurazone is effective for surface skin infections of Streptococcus iniae which may appear as a milky peeling slime.
Effective as well against marine ulcer disease and some protozoan infestations. For this reason, Nitrofurazone is a good next step treatment for wounds and other topical infections when first step treatments such as Pimafix or Melafix fail.
Nitrofurazone is also useful in treating Furunculosis often found in Koi.

Serious adverse events related to nitrofurans are very rare. Acquired resistance of bacteria to nitrofurans during therapy has been rare and has not appeared on a significant scale in over 50 years of use.
Do not use in the presence of invertebrates.
Nitrofurazone is more effective at lower pH levels, which means use for marine fish is best in baths, NOT the display aquarium!

Nitrofurazone is not Skin absorbed, so use of this Bactericidal for systemic infections is not recommended.
However Aquatronics and myself have found that Nitrofurazone combines well with Kanamycin (which is skin absorbing), and are very complimentary to each other!
When Kanamycin and Nitrofurazone are combined these medications form a synergistic combination that is not totally understood, but what is known is that often leaving one or the other out of the equation or not using both at full strength often results in failure in treatments of stubborn/advanced bacterial infections such as Columnaris.

As well since Nitrofurazone is often better topically for Aeromonas while Kanamycin's skin absorbing properties combine well with Nitrofurazone for Columnaris.
Since these bacterial infections are often hard to differentiate by the average aquarist, this can be a good combination when unsure.
Further Reference: Nitrofural, Nitrofurazone; Skin Absorbing

Source for: Nitrofurazone (Furan 2) from AAP

DOSAGE: 250- 500 mg per 20 gallons. Treat every 48 hours (24 hours for severe problems) with a 50% water change before each treatment. Treat for 10 days.

Nitrofurazone is found in Aquarium Pharmaceuticals Furan 2 and Jungle Labs Binox

Contraindications

*Do not use in the presence of live plants or many delicate invertebrates, including shrimps, some crabs, urchins, & more
*Not best used in saltwater display aquarium, better in hospital tank or bath with no carbonate based decor (corals, live rock, etc.)

Aquatronics Products

Aquatronics made excellent products (many that are simply no longer available in any form), but unfortunately went out of business in the early 2000s for business reasons which continue to haunt and perpetuate within the Aquarium & Pet industry in general, not for lack of excellent reliable aquatic treatments.
In fact as a side note, purchasing aquarium products at companies such as Amazon, Pet Mountain and many others will likely result in more top notch aquarium information and supply companies disappearing as did Aquatronics, remember this the next time you attempt to save a $1 by purchasing at these types of retailers.

Nitrofurazone, Kanamycin, & Metronidazole were found in a few excellent products of theirs that are no longer available, but can be utilized by blending your own medications.

Here are two that can blended:

*Aquatronics Spectrogram: Nitrofurazone can be combined with Kanamycin to make an even more wide spectrum treatment, especially for difficult cases of Columnaris or Aeromonas.

For very serious combination bacterial/fungal/parasitic infections (such as Ichthyophonus or even virus infections such as “Angelfish aids”), especially in often difficult to treat Loach, Botia, Cory Catfish and similar fish; this combination PLUS SeaChem ParaGuard can often be the “kick” needed for a cure (assuming water conditions are also at proper parameters)

*Aquatronics Paragon 2;
Nitrofurazone OR Triple Sulfa can be combined with Kanamycin & SeaChem ParaGuard for a VERY strong fungal, & bacterial infection treatment.
Substitute Kanamycin with Metronidazole for an excellent parasitic, fungal, & bacterial infection treatment.

Product Reference:
*SeaChem Kanaplex
*SeaChem ParaGuard
*SeaChem Metronidazole
*API Furan 2 (Nitrofurazone)
*API Triple Sulfa

Information Reference:
Ichthyophonus, Aquarium Answers
Angel Fish Virus, Aquarium Answers
A Healthy Aquarium, Disease Prevention

Contraindications

*Do not use as a medication for a fish food soak for internal treatment

NEOMYCIN SULFATE:

USE: Neomycin (a Aminoglycoside) is a broad spectrum antibiotic that is effective for aerobic gram-positive, some gram-negative such as Aeromonas of the gut, and occasionally Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mycobacterium marinum), which is neither Gram-positive nor Gram-negative due to high lipid content in its wall.

Effective for some Gram-negative bacteria- Open red sores or ulcerations, intestinal infections, fin and tail damage.
In severe cases where fins and tail are eaten away- treat with Kanamycin for this.
As well, Neomycin can be PART of a treatment for mycobacterium tuberculosis (symptoms, weight loss, a distended abdomen, loss of appetite, fin erosion, unusual coloration, spinal deformities, and listless behavior).

Neomycin is ineffective against fungi, yeast and viruses.

Neomycin is not absorbed by the intestinal tract and is effective in treatment of diseases thereof. But Neomycin can damage the kidneys as it is nephrotoxic when it enters the bloodstream, however since this drug is not readily absorbed in the intestinal tract it is useful for treatment of pathogens such as Aeromonas, particularly of the gut, that can lead to Dropsy or similar diseases.

More about: Dropsy

Neomycin works well in freshwater or saltwater aquariums.
Neomycin is very effective when used in feeding due to the fact that this antibiotic does not get absorbed. This is my preferred way to treat with this antibiotic.

Aquarium Antibiotic Medications, Hikari Bio BandageFor external use, Neomycin is more limited in use and should be used as you would the Human product; Neosporin.
That use would be for minor cuts, injuries, etc., not for major bacterial infections, especially since most major external fish infections are gram negative infections that Neomycin is not effective for. External use would be also similar to recommended use of Melafix.

DOSAGE: To prepare medicated fish food with flake, FD, or frozen fish food; Use One Measure (2-5 gallon "in tank" dose) of Neoplex per 15 minute fish food soaking for an average 60 gallon bio load aquarium (I use "just enough" water to mix fish food and Neomycin).
After soak, pour entire contents into aquarium.

For in tank treatment; 250 mg per 10 gallons of water.
Treat every 24 hours with a 25% water change before each treatment. Treat for 10 days. For tuberculosis, use for up to 30 days (Can be and should be combined with other treatments such as Isoniazid for Fish TB).

Further Reference: TB in Fish, Mycobacterium Tuberculosis

Neomycin is found in these products:
*SeaChem Neoplex (Neomycin)
*Hikari Bio-Bandage

Contraindications

*Do not use with fish suffering from inflammatory or ulcerative gastrointestinal disease

METRONIDAZOLE:

USE: Metronidazoles primary use is for the treatment of anaerobic gram positive bacteria including those that produce beta-lactamase. However, it is not effective against aerobic bacterium.
As well Metronidazole is effective for some protozoa (especially internal flagellates).

Due to Metronidazole effectiveness against anaerobic bacteria (by selectively blocking some of the cell functions of anaerobic bacteria) this drug along with Neomycin is a good choice for bloating of the digestive tract (common in goldfish).
Metronidazole selectively blocks some of the cell functions in anaerobic bacteria, resulting in their demise.
Metronidazole is also a good choice for many protozoan parasite infections, especially for Cryptocaryon in marine aquaria.

Metronidazole is also effective used in combination or by itself for internal parasites such as Nematodes or Trematodes. In marine aquarium infections is where Metronidazole really shines as it is very effective internally and since Marine fish are always drinking the water around them, medication is easily transported to the infected area. In Freshwater, treatment can be improved by soaking food as well and this is still an effective freshwater treatment as well.

Common aquatic uses for Metronidazole; Hole in the head disease (hexamita), chilodonella, plistophora (parasite disease usually seen in neons and cardinals that causes loss of color, darting, and eventually death.
(Please read “Neon Tetra Disease” in the reference section), salt water ich, bloat.

Metronidazole can be combined with Nitrofurazone and Methylene Blue (1/2 dose for the Methylene blue) for an alternative treatment for anchor worms, especially for Trichlorfon sensitive fish.
Metronidazole is unique in some of its effectiveness and is excellent to combine with other treatments especially when affecting a cure is difficult (such as many internal parasites).
Probably the Aquarium Industries top fish remedy manufacturer, Aquatronics (that unfortunately went out of business), used Metronidazole in many of its multi antibiotic remedies as it very useful in combination.

DOSAGE: 250-500 mg per 20 gallons. Treat every 48 hours (24 hours for severe problems) with a 25% water change before each treatment. Treat for 10 days.

To prepare medicated fish food with flake, FD, or frozen fish food;
Use One Measure (2-5 gallon "in tank" dose) of Metronidazole per 15 minute fish food soaking for an average 60 gallon bio load aquarium (I use "just enough" water to mix fish food and Neomycin).
After soak, pour entire contents into aquarium.

Metronidazole is often used in treating early stages or for prevention of Neon Tetra & FNT Disease.
Reference:
Neon Tetra & FNT Disease

Metronidazole is found in:
*SeaChem; Metronidazole from AA & *Jungle Parasite Guard

KANAMYCIN SULFATE;

ABOUT/ USE: An easily absorbed antibiotic, it is used to treat many sensitive gram–negative and some gram–positive bacteria.
Kanamycin is a water-soluble aminoglycoside antibiotic that is derived from the bacterium Streptomyces kanamyceticus and has a very low adsorption rate in the intestine of animals including fish.
Aminoglycosides work by binding to the bacterial 30S ribosomal subunit, causing misreading of t-RNA, leaving the bacterium unable to synthesize proteins vital to its growth.
Aminoglycosides such as Kanamycin are useful in infections involving aerobic gram-negative bacteria such as Columnaris (especially when combined with Nitrofurazone).

Kanamycin works especially well in salt water aquariums.
As noted a few times earlier in this article, Kanamycin works well combined with (& compliments) Nitrofurazone for flexibacter (Columnaris), which may includes these symptoms; fuzzy, thin, white "saddles" on the body and fins.

Also useful for Pseudomonas-Open red sores or ulcerations, fin and tail damage, fins and tail are eaten away, in severe cases, down to the body.
Kanamycin is very effective in high pH applications, especially Vibrio, making it useful for brackish and marine treatments. Kanamycin is easily absorbed skin absorbed, making it an excellent choice for systemic infections.

Kanamycin is one of the more effective broad spectrum antibiotics available with recent tests showing it to surpass the Tetracycline class antibiotics in cultures including Minocyline (found in Maracyn II), although Kanacyn has been also been shown in these studies to be even more effective when combined with other antibiotics such as Nitrofurazone or Tetracyclines for a “super” antibiotic effect.
Kanamycin can also be used for aquatic Tuberculosis (Mycobacterium marinum), although Isoniazid is often the drug of choice, both can be used together as Isoniazid seems to affect certain active TB bacterium whereas Kanamycin has often different TB activity effectiveness (Kanamycin can also be combined with Neomycin for difficult cases of Mycobacterium marinum.

I personally have found this to be one of the more effective antibiotics available (similar properties to Chloramphenicol, although still not as effective as Chloramphenicol which is no longer available in the aquarium trade).
Kanamyacin can be effective for whirling disease, suspected kidney disease and dropsy. Kanamycin tends to be absorbed quickly by the kidneys which makes it effective for treatment of Kidney infection, but also lends itself to the destruction of the kidneys with over use.
Kanamycin sulfate appears to prevent bacteria from making their cell walls, so the cells die.

As noted earlier, Kanamycin can be blended with other medications to make a few popular Aquatronics Medications/Treatments that are no longer available.

Here are two that can blended:
*Aquatronics Spectrogram: Kanamycin can be combined with Furan 2 to make an even more wide spectrum treatment, especially for difficult cases of Columnaris or Aeromonas.

*Aquatronics Paragon 2; Kanamycin can be combined with Furan 2 & Metronidazole for an excellent parasitic, fungal, & bacterial infection treatment.

DOSAGE: 500-750 mg per 20 gallons. Treat every 48 hours (24 hours for severe problems) with a 25% water change before each treatment. Treat 3 times or up to 10 days in severe cases (with water changes immediately before each treatment).

Kanamycin is found in:
*SeaChem; Kanaplex

Further Information:
IDENTIFICATION AND TREATMENT OF AEROMONAS, VIBRIO, & SEPTICEMIA

Contraindications

*While often one of the few aids to treating early onset Dropsy, care should be exercised since Kanamycin will also damage or destroy Kidneys if over used or if the kidneys are already severely compromised
Further Reference: Dropsy in Fish

CHLORAMPHENICOL:

Chloramphenicol has in vitro activity against most anaerobic bacteria (gram positive/negative), and aerobic gram-positive bacteria making this one of the more effective antibiotics I have ever used for fish due to its wide spectrum effectiveness, especially as per many aquatic bacterial pathogens (and even some parasites too).

Unfortunately the toxicity of Chloramphenicol, which has been linked to the development of aplastic anemia (a rare but potentially fatal condition) and dose-dependent leukopenia, has made this antibiotic impossible to find for most aquarists due to strict regulation, with Kanamycin Sulfate the closest substitute (although still not as useful in my experience)

ERYTHROMYCIN:

Erythromycin, API ProABOUT/ USE: Fin and tail rot, infections attributed to kidney disease (often not true kidney infections), some causes of pop eye, False Neon Tetra Disease/FTD, and certain causes of "Black Molly disease".

Erythromycin is most effective for gram-positive (the drug of choice for Streptococcus & Eye Infections in fish) and SOME gram negative bacteria and fungus appearing diseases, not what is generally considered true fungus).
In fact there is sadly much misinformation about the use of Erythromycin for "True Fungus" which is 100% incorrect as one Betta Forum diagnostics incorrectly recommended Erythromycin for Fungus which any check of most medical literature will show NO recommendations for such treatment. The use of Erythromycin for a true fungal infection or similar appearing Columnaris will waste precious time and likely result in the death of your fish.

Further Referencea:
Streptococcus, Eye Infections
Fungus; Saprolegnia in Fish
Neon Tetra Disease, FNT, Sporozoan

Erythromycin is considered primarily a gram positive treatment and should be used accordingly

Generally Erythromycin is not effective for most common aquatic diseases, especially in saltwater aquariums since it is primarily gram positive while the majority of aquatic infections are gram negative.
This is not to say Erythromycin is a useless treatment for aquarium use, as it is still useful for some diseases especially some of the more difficult gram positive infections such as Streptococcus, some cases fin rot and even some causes of Neon Tetra Disease (not all as this is more a symptom of several possible causes rather than an actual disease).

Another often effective use of Erythromycin is for eye infections, both pop eye and cloudy eyes (cataract like infections), however in both cases a medicated Methylene Blue/Salt bath should also be part of the treatment (if possible, as some large fish this is not possible).
Direct application of Silver Nitrate or Potassium Permanganate may be necessary for severe cloudy eyes (cataract like eye infections).
When used for many eye infections (especially when only one or a small percentage of fish are effected), use of Erythromycin at double dose in a medicated fish bath is often an effective and definitely safe method of use.
Further Reference: Medicated Fish Baths, How to perform

I find that Erythromycin (often in the trade named product Maracyn) is one of the most improperly recommended aquatic medications available (based on feedback from clients and reading forums, especially Yahoo Answers).
Although I have used this antibiotic with success, it is rarely a medication that I will go to first other than for specific diseases/conditions since it is limited in its aquatic effectiveness and is hard on nitrifying bacteria.
This is a medication worth trying when all else has failed or even in combination with antibiotics such as Kanamycin, but as a first choice Erythromycin should be very limited other than the before mentioned infections (such as Streptococcus & serious gram positive eye infections).

Erythromycin works by inhibiting protein synthesis by binding to the 23S rRNA molecule (in the 50S sub-unit) of the bacterial ribosome blocking the exit of the growing peptide chain of sensitive microorganisms.
Animals including fish do not have 50 S ribosomal subunits, but have ribosomes composed of 40 S and 60 S subunits.
Certain resistant microorganisms with mutational changes in components of this sub-unit of the ribosome fail to bind the drug. The association between erythromycin and the ribosome is reversible and takes place only when the 50 S sub-unit is free from tRNA molecules bearing nascent peptide chains.

Gram-positive bacteria accumulate about 100 times more erythromycin than do gram-negative microorganisms. The non ionized from of the drug is considerably more permeable to cells, and this probably explains the increased antimicrobial activity that is observed in alkaline pH, which is why Erythromycin is more effective in pH over 7.2

PLEASE NOTE!! It is also well established among experienced fish keepers (as well as my own extensive use) that Erythromycin is VERY harsh on nitrifying bacteria (even though established as primarily gram negative), especially above 7.2 pH and should be used with care in aquariums, although in established aquariums the nitrifying bacteria will generally bounce back.
When used with faculative bacterial support products such as SeaChem Stability, this lowers the risk of dangerous ammonia spike issues.

Further Reference:
The Krib; Erythromycin vs Blue-Green Algae - a short article

Having a "pre-seeded" (with aerobic nitrifying bacteria) sponge filter or other filter media in another healthy tank to move over to the Erythromycin treated aquarium is very helpful in quickly re-establishing/repairing your aquarium nitrogen cycle.
Use of a bare hospital tank with a seeded sponge filter is another idea when practical (not for aquarium wide infections).
Product Resource: SeaChem Stability

I would not recommend Erythromycin in new aquariums or Marine Aquariums due to activity that can harm bio filters.

Further Discussion: TheReefTank; erythromycin & nitrifying bacteria
From the above discussion:
"I don't know who told you that the erythromycin wouldn't hurt the nitrifying bacteria, but let me put this in perspective.
It is very common practice to treat patients prophylactically with a form of erythromycin that is not easily absorbed (so that most of it stays in the gut) the day prior to gut surgery, as it is a type of surgery that is at risk for peritoneal (abdominal connective tissue) infection from the contents of the gut. Normally the dose is 1 gms at 1, 2 and 5pm the day prior to surgery, and the average volume of distribution for most patients at this dose is about 10 to 15 liters (how much apparent volume to account for the concentration of a drug in plasma) If we assume that it is 16 liters, and that there are approximately 4 liter in a gal, then we have 250mg of erythromycin in a gallon of body fluids, but this is the level that is intended to kill as close to 100% of the gut's flora as possible in the short dosing time that we treat the patient.
Even at low doses in the aquarium it will reduce the numbers of nitrifying bacteria, and has little discrimination in which bacteria it kills (the mechanism is that erythromycin binds to certain subunits of the 50S level of bacterial ribosomes, thereby preventing essential protein systhesis in the ribosomes). It's minimun inhibitory concentration (MIC) is as low as 0.003 mcg/ml for some spp of bacteria."

Generally Erythromycin is best not combined with other medications, although I have combined with Kanamycin under careful observation of aquarium ammonia levels.

DOSAGE: 250- 500 mg per 20 gallons every 24 hours with a 25% water change before each treatment. Treat for 10 days.

Erythromycin is found in:
*API Pro Erythromycin, from AAP or Maracyn by Mardel. Contraindications

*Do not use in new aquariums (under 8 weeks) where the nitrifying bacterial colonies are likely not well established
*Do not mix with other primarily gram positive medications such as any Tetracycline *Do not use if fish have Dropsy

ISONIAZID 300 mg:

ABOUT/USE: Treatment for tuberculosis.
Symptoms include: the fish have been sick for several months, the fish is lethargic, anorexic, has fin or scale loss and a sunken stomach.

Isoniazid Can be combined with Kanamycin or Neomycin.
As noted, Isoniazid is used alone or can be used with other drugs to treat tuberculosis (TB) and to prevent it in fish that have had contact with tuberculosis bacteria.
It eliminates ONLY ACTIVE (growing) bacteria.
Since the bacteria may exist in a resting (nongrowing) state for long periods, therapy with isoniazid (and other antituberculosis drugs) MUST be continued for a long time (usually 6-12 months) often making TB treatments in aquariums impractical due to costs, time, and damage to the aquatic environment (I strongly recommend using a quarantine tank).

Unfortunately, Isoniazid has become very difficult to obtain since the premier aquarium medications company, "Aquatronics" went out of business due to the declining business climate in the aquarium industry.
Neomycin is an alternative for Mycobacterium tuberculosis, as well Kanamycin is considered a second line drug for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (not a first line since many strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis are resistant to Kanamycin) An organic alternative is Usnea, which has shown very good lab results in treating the Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
For more about Usnea, please see this Aquarium Answers article:
USNEA; USING USNIC ACID AS A FISH REMEDY

Note: Aquatic tuberculosis can be very difficult to treat (in fact nearly impossible). Also note that this is caused by a very similar bacterium in human TB, but is not the same, and the only danger to humans is to an open wound exposed to the bacterium, which then only causes a localized rash.

Further Reference about TB in Fish:
TB in Fish, Mycobacterium Tuberculosis

DOSAGE: 1 tablet per 20 gallons, every other day for 14- 30 days

PENICILLIN & AMPICILLIN;

USE: Belonging to the group of beta-lactam antibiotics, ampicillin is able to penetrate Gram-positive and some Gram-negative bacteria.
Even though this a commonly used antibiotic family in humans and other warm blooded animals, this is a family of antibiotics that has shown to be GENERALLY USELESS in fish (especially Penicillin).
About the only effectiveness comes in the treatment of some fungal-like eye infections.

All medications, antimicrobials, antibiotics, chemotherapeutics work differently in differently in different organisms, even if the processes are similar. An example I often use is for Quinine Sulfate; this is a generally safe and effective treatment for fish, but not at all for invertebrates.
The same goes for both Penicillin and Ampicillin, while these are often useful for humans, their use for fish is VERY LIMITED AT BEST, and should basically never be used in an aquarium.

NALIDIXIC ACID (Naladin):

Nalidixic Acid is a quinolone, a family of broad-spectrum antibiotics.
Nalidixic Acid (also known as Naladixic Acid and Naladin) is effective against many gram negative and positive bacteria.
In humans it was, as the antibiotic is no longer used for humans, used for urinary tract infections.
Naladixic Acid is similar in its effectiveness to Septra (AKA Trimethoprin).

USE: In aquariums it has been shown to be occasionally effective for swelling caused by fluids in the internal cavity of the fish that is often diagnosed as Dropsy.
It has also shown effectiveness in treating sporozoans (Pleistophora hyphessobryconis) sometimes referred to as neon tetra disease.

For this application Naladixic Acid works best combined with Metronidazole or Gentian Violet. Although for this condition I prefer a Methylene Blue bath and Metronidazole in the aquarium (or possibly Quick Cure or ParaGuard).

Caution should be used with Nalidixic Acid in hard water aquariums as high amounts of calcium will interact with this antibiotic.

Product Resources:
*Quick Cure
*SeaChem ParaGuard
*Methylene Blue from AAP


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USEFUL RESOURCES:

For Aquarium/Pond treatment products to help with many aquatic diseases and conditioners, aquarium test kits & more.

For SeaChem Products, please follow this link:

SeaChem Aquarium Products
Including the premier Ich treatment; ParaGuard, SeaChem Metronidazole, and the best available water conditioner; Prime.


Aquarium Test Kits
API, SeaChem, ReSun, & other aquatic test kits


Jungle Aquarium Products
Products include Start Right water conditioner and Clear Water


Select Kordon & Mardel Treatments
Products include Methylene Blue, Herbal Ich Attack, Quick Cure, CopperSafe, Clout, Crystal Clear


Aquarium Pharmaceuticals Aquarium Treatments
Products include the popular remedies Melafix and Furan 2


Wonder Shells
The premier product for a constant supply of positive mineral ions, as well as a medicated version from the ONLY online seller with 30 years use and experience of what this product can and cannot do.

For all your UV-C Replacement bulb needs for Ultraviolet Sterilizers, Clarifiers, and even Purifiers, see this web page:
UV Bulbs; for UV Sterilizer, Purifier

Reverse Osmosis Filter System with TDS Meter
The TMC Advanced Aquarium RO Water Filter system includes a TDS meter and operates at less than 2 cents per gallon

Sponge Filters
For Sponge Filters which are ideal for treatment hospital tanks or simply extremely effective yet simple bio filters for your main aquarium or sump.

PowerHead Pumps for Aquarium
Superior to Hagen or Marineland, yet more economical.


Volcanic Rock Bio Filter Media
An economical aquarium or pond filter media that is still very effective for both aerobic AND anaerobic bio filtration; ONLY $2.99














FOR EACH MEDICATION ARTICLE, PLEASE CLICK THE LINKS BELOW:
*ANTIBIOTICS/ ANTIMICROBIALS
* PARASITE & CHEMICAL TREATMENTS
* ORGANIC TREATMENTS
* AQUARIUM MEDICATIONS & TREATMENTS INTRODUCTION (Home)

Further reading/references:

*http://www.elmhurst.edu/~chm/vchembook/654antibiotic.html
* http://www.mtsu.edu/~rseipelt/web2120a/ ... kbact2.htm
*Treatment of Tuberculosis
*http://www.druglib.com/activeingredient/kanamycin/

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Aquarium Medications and Treatments, organic, natural remedies
Aquarium & Pond Organic Treatments Information

Information about these Treatments:
*Pimafix
*Melafix (TTO, Tea tree oil)
*Naphthoquinones (Herbal Ich Attack) *Therapeutic Oils (Fish Therapy Bath)
*Oregon Grape Root
*Usnea, Purchase Usnea
*Others such as Microbe-Lift Herbtana



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AQUARIUM MEDICATIONS & TREATMENTS INTRODUCTION (Home)

By Carl Strohmeyer-PAMR 35+ years experience
Updated 12/18/15

I will examine a few “homeopathic” treatments that I have used; as well as information about the symptoms and possible treatment of Lymphocystis

The benefit of most organic “natural” remedies is although these may not be as strong/effective as synthetic/chemical treatments this type of remedy generally has a much larger safety margin with much less side effects and basically non existent expiration times (I have used Melafix effectively years past the so-called “best used date”).



PIMENTA EXTRACT (PIMAFIX);

Pimafix organic aquarium and pond treatment for fungus, mild gram negative bacterial infections USE: Pimenta extract is effective for a broad range of mild bacterial and fungal diseases that typically afflict fish and other aquatic animals.
Fish diseases that may be treated in accordance with this include bacterial fish diseases, such as fin and tail rot, mouth fungus (sometimes caused by the bacterium Flavobacterium columnaris); fungal fish diseases (such as those caused by microorganisms of the genera Saprolegnia and Achyle) and the like.

Pimenta Extract has shown to be more effective against gram negative bacterial infections which are more common in aquatic infections. This generally makes Pimafix a better choice over Melafix, although they can be combined for more broad range effectiveness.


Pimenta Plant The Pimenta extract treatment has been shown in Lab tests to be effective in curing such difficult-to-treat fish diseases, like ragged fins and bacterial dropsy (early stages).
Since the Pimenta extract treatment has been shown in Lab Tests to have broad-spectrum effectiveness against many diseases affecting fish and other aquatic animals, precise identification of specific bacterial or fungal pathogens causing the disease is not usually necessary.
Please note though that sterile environment lab tests not always a real world indicator of how a treatment or process will work, based on my results I would only suggest this for mild to some moderate infections in an aquarium/pond.

Pimafix is often effective where its sister product, Melafix is not. Since they have different anti-microbial properties, combining both is safe and occasionally more effective.

My own use and notes of this product show it to be a useful product (often even more useful when combined with Melafix) for MILD bacterial infections or fungal (Saprolegnia) infections.
I have never seen any harm to fish or nitrifying bacteria with this product, and it is what I often use or recommend for new fish, when possible infections are noted, or sometimes after a stressful situation for the fish has occurred.

This all said, Pimafix is not for serious infections, so even though this is a good first response treatment (again with a possible combination with Melafix), I do NOT recommend Pimafix when the infection is serious or if Pimafix is not effecting a cure, a stronger medication such as Kanamycin, Minocycline or Nitrofurazone SHOULD be used.

Please see this article for more about these medications:
Aquarium Medications; Antibiotics, Antimicrobials

Product References:
*SeaChem Kanamycin
*Nitrofurazone
*Pimafix, from AAP

Possible Dangers:

One caution I would offer for the use of Pimafix is for marine aquariums; although I have not observed any problems, human and other animal studies have shown that the active ingredient in Pimafix is highly toxic when ingested and since most marine fish drink the water around them to regulate osmotic pressure in their bodies, the potential of over use exists in marine aquaria. As well, I would most definitely not use with marine invertebrates!

Another caution with Pimafix is that it contains refined Clove Oil (refined so as to dissolve in water).
Many aquarists warn against the use of Pimafix for this reason, HOWEVER I think this is a knee jerk reaction with NO scientific studies to back this up.
Of course continued use of Pimafix with no water changes and/or use of carbon for removal could certainly allow for dangerous Eugenol (the active ingredient in clove oil) buildup, but then ANY treatment when abused can be dangerous!

I found one such reaction in an aquarium forum by a person who seems quite knowledgeable, but in this case is making non-scientific anecdotal claims based not in controlled studies, but the knowledge that Clove oil can be and is lethal at certain dosage.

An example of this type of thinking as noted in the previous paragraph, is the use of Tylenol (acetometaphin) in humans; which used properly is effective for headache relief and more, but when over used or worse, when combined with alcohol can be lethal to one’s liver.
My point is to use this or ANY treatment carefully with routine water changes between doses.


DOSAGE: Refer to Pimafix (link) instructions on how to use Pimafix


MELALUCA TEA, TTO (Tea Tree Oil), cajeput oil found in MELAFIX:

Melafix organic aquarium and pond treatment for wounds, torn fins, ulcers USE: Repairs damaged fins, ulcers, mild eye infections, and open wounds, often caused by rough handling, fighting, and occasionally “ammonia burns”, although a fish bath or hospital tank with Methylene Blue is often more effective.
Melaluca tea extract also promotes re-growth of damaged tissue and fins when used as an antiseptic.

References:
*Fish Bath Information
*Methylene Blue from AAP

About Melaleuca
Melaleuca tea leaves Melaleuca alternifolia is a plant that belongs to the family Myrtaceae, of which aboriginals of New South Wales (Australia) have long used as an antiseptic.
The oil is a natural antimicrobial allelochemics Phytoncide obtained from the leaves of the tea tree contains marked germicidal activity owing to the presence of terpunen-4-ol and is useful in eliminating germs.
Other constituents in the oil extracted from this plant like alpha-terpineol and linalool are also play a major role in maintaining the anti-microbial activities.

The oil is acquired from the tea tree leaves through a process of steam refinement.
While a third of the oil contains different terpene hydrocarbons like pinene, terpinene and cymene, the remaining part comprises mainly of oxygenated terpenes.
The terpenes are mainly terpinen-4-ol that may form up to 60 percent of the total oil derived from the tea tree leaves.

However it is noteworthy that Melafix employs the TTO found in the related Melaleuca leucadendron tree (AKA the Cajeput tree) found in SE Asia, New Guinea and surrounding areas.
This is important, as there is much less scientific studies backing up the use of TTO (tea tree oil) found in Melaleuca leucadendron vs. Melaleuca alternifolia.
This admittedly leads me to question why API chose to use this form of TTO vs. the better documented Melaleuca alternifolia.



More about Aquatic uses of Melafix;

Melafix is sometimes effective against early stages of Aeromonas bacteria which often attack open wounds, sores, and abrasions.
However the main use of Melaluca (Melafix) is as an antiseptic or bactericidal for MILD wounds, torn fins, mild eye infections, etc. on fish for which it is a good product to have on hand as a first response treatment as one would for a human antiseptic such as "Neosporin".

As well it is noteworthy that Melafix (TTO) is more useful in “battling” Aeromonas by aiding in healing the fish prior to this opportunistic gram negative bacterium even gets a “foot hold” (especially since TTO has little proven effectiveness against full blown gram negative infections).
More about: Aeromonas bacteria

As to eye infections, Melafix is an excellent first response to eye infections and often is all that is needed for mild case, however more serious case generally should included medicated baths, direct applications of medications to the eye (such as Methylene Blue or Potassium Permanganate), along with in tank treatment with stronger gram positive medications such as Erythromycin.

Eye Infection Reference:
Aquarium Answers, Eye Infections, Streptococcus

Product Reference:
Melafix from AAP
Potassium Permanganate
Erythromycin from AAP

Melaluca tends to be more effective against gram positive bacteria (which is often the cause of eye infections), which are less common in aquatic diseases, making Melafix a lesser choice to Pimafix which is more effective against gram negative bacteria (as noted earlier, they can be combined).

More importantly, MULTIPLE excellent University level human and veterinary studies (most out of Australia) show that Tea Tree oil (used to manufacture Melafix) can be an effective EXTERNAL treatment against many bacterium.
HOWEVER there is little evidence of internal effectiveness (it is toxic internally as well), so the use of Melafix to treat systemic infections (which aquatic infections often are) such as Septicemia is TOTALLY useless!

For this reason I still have to scratch my head as to the use & recommendation of Melafix to treat these infections as all scientific evidence says NO, so those who claim it helped are making anecdotal statements, that are likely explained by other reasons/answers.

I have used Melafix quite a bit with mixed results.
Sometimes though this product gets reviews that are very inaccurate from both sides; some claim it is useless (it is not) others will recommend it for everything of which this product has many limits.
I think this is where I want to pull my hair out as those who over recommend Melafix as well as those who say it is useless really understand what Melafix really works best on or should be used for.

An absurd claim put out by an old Goldfish site that is present in some Google Groups is that Melafix will burn the gills of injured fish; I have NEVER seen ANY evidence of this and quite the opposite I have found it soothing to the fish with wounds (see the university study link that disproves this common internet myth).
If you doubt this try pouring some Melafix on an open sore you have and see what happens!

First Response use of Melafix; I am attempting make the point in this article that Melafix or Melafix combined with Pimafix is a good first response treatment for mild/moderate injuries, torn fins, damaged gills (often from high ammonia).
However I urge readers to exercise more scientific and less anecdotal thinking when using Melafix.

Since Melafix has been proven scientifically to be primarily effective only on gram positive bacterium which are far less often a cause of serious aquarium and pond bacterial infections than gram negative infections such as Columnaris, the use of this product for said infections is totally useless. Gram negative Pseudomonas MAY be the only possible exception but this is not generally a common cause of virulent infections in fish. More importantly, my use of test samples from virulent fish sores in the 1990s showed not activity by Melafix against the the bacterium involved.
HOWEVER since many gram positive infections can be first invaders in injuries, sores, torn fins, etc., the immediate use of Melafix can help prevent opportunistic bacteria such as Aeromonas or Columnaris to get started in the first place. Use as a first response product is where I have found Melafix most useful and why I feel it should be part of of every fish keepers on hand arsenal, I just caution its use for most full blown fish infections (though combining with Pimafix can improve results in some instances).

Infection Resources:
Aeromonas Bacterial infections in aquariums, ponds
Columnaris, Fungus, Saprolegnia


My point about thinking scientifically means that if, for example you had a fish with symptoms of Aeromonas (which is an extremely opportunistic infection that often strikes in less than optimum conditions) and then changed water and performed other maintenance tasks that improved water conditions, while at the same time used Melafix to treat the fish, then your fish recovered; this is NOT proof that the Melafix cured your fish. More than likely the water improvement tasks helped the fish fight the infection themselves.
Making such a claim is an example of anecdotal information as this is not a scientific method of making accurate assessments of aquarium treatments, unfortunately this is how these types of aquatic urban myths get started and are then spread via non or poorly moderated forums such as Yahoo Answers.

Even with gram positive infections such as Aquatic Streptococcus which Melafix may be effective for (in mild cases or in conjunction with other treatment methods), the potential user should note that the ingredients in Melafix are not very strong against a virulent Streptococcus infection.

Compare Melafix to Bactine in use for fishMelafix’s properties as an antimicrobial are limited (at least at the concentrations found in Melafix). However I do find it useful for a first response to injury of all kinds to fish where I HAVE observed some good results here and often the fish are more calm (IMO) after use of this product.
The best way to think of Melafix (Melaluca) is to compare it to human use of Neosporin or antiseptics like Bactine after a cut, abrasion or similar.
Melafix has similar properties and uses and like Neosporin or Bactine and similarly does not take the place of stronger treatments for more serious infections or injuries.

An analogy so as to better understand how and what to use Melafix for is these:

Would you use Bactine for an abrasion, mild bite/sting or cut?
Yes, as would an aquarist with Melafix

Would you use Bactine for this same cut that developed a Staph infection?
No, nor would you use Melafix, you would advance to a stronger antibiotic such as Kanamycin or Erythromycin

Would you use Bactine if you were severely injured by shrapnel, leaving a gaping wound?
No, nor would you use Melafix for a severe injury (a medicated bath, possible with salts, Methylene Blue, Kanamycin, etc. would be the first course followed by a hospital tank with an antibiotic such as Kanamycin & Nitrofurazone or Triple Sulfa).

As with Pimafix (and even more so since it is effective for less bacterium), I do not recommend Melafix for serious infections, rather a first line of defense as already noted and in combination with the slightly more effective Pimafix.

Possible Dangers:

As with Pimafix, I would be careful in Marine Aquarium use, although with fish generally this is not a problem (although effectiveness is questionable since marine fish diseases even more so than freshwater diseases tend toward gram negative). With marine reef tanks I would not recommend the use of Melafix.

Many claim that Melafix can cause problems with Labyrinth fish and Pencil Fish, which research has shown to be a half truth.
I have used and tested Melafix on many Labyrinth fish (in particular Bettas) and not found these results as claimed.
Further more, one aquarium website incorrectly stated that the "oils" in both Pimafix and Melafix are dangerous to Labyrinth due to the need to "breath air".

I can correct this incorrect statement in that part of the patent for Melafix (& Pimafix) is the process of refining of the oil OUT of both these products.
This can EASILY be proved by adding Melafix or Pimafix to the water and watching for it to float on the water, which it does not.
HOWEVER before implying this person in that aquarium website does not know what she is talking about, Melafix can and does cause foaming, which at least in theory could be a problem with certain fish.
I would also refer to my analogy I used to explain anecdotal concerns with Pimafix as to the use of Tylenol in humans.

I would venture a guess that those who have had problems are certainly not imagining it, however that some sort of chemical reaction happened (again I refer to my Tylenol/alcohol combination analogy I made in the Pimafix section).
My reason for making this statement is that I and others in my profession have used Melafix with Labyrinth fish/Pencil fish and have not observed fatal reactions.

Current Research/Hypothesis

Currently the best scientific information shows that there may be link between the tea tree oil in Melafix and toxicity in Labyrinth fish/Pencil fish, but this link is NOT what many in aquatic forums are anecdotally assuming.
The best information points to liver function, which would explain why some (such as myself) have not observed this problems in our tests, as admittedly the early studies did not initially focus on over doses or chemistry variables in the water.

Basically Tea Tree oil (melaleuca, Melaleuca alternifolia) is a phenol-containing essential oil.
Its active ingredients are cyclic terpenes which have a similar structure and action to turpentine (a known liver toxin).
The acute toxicity for the major terpenic compounds (linalool, ocimene, alpha-terpinene, 1,8-cineole, terpinolene, camphene) is 2 - 5 g/kg body weight, which is considered a moderately toxic range.
From a toxicologic point of view Tea Tree oil is comparable to oil of turpentine, which is readily absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and then finds its way to the liver.
What may be the problem is that under certain conditions Melafix may be toxic to the liver in Labyrinth fish/Pencil fish.

My current hypothesis (based on early tests), is that since the best research shows similarities between TTO and Turpentine (both are terpenes, but then so is beta carotene), is that in an acidic environment, in particular an environment with nitric acid (which is quite possible in an aquarium), the chemical reaction can produce chemicals that may harm the liver in certain fish that have a tendency to ingest the water around them such as Labyrinth fish/Pencil fish (via the surface).

Certain terpenes such as turpentine are actually explosive when combined with nitric acid (this chemical reaction is used in rocket fuels!).
On a small scale (aquarium environment) some similar reaction may be happening that with certain fish can cause death. This would also explain why this problem has never been noted in marine fish even though they constantly drink the water around them, since marine fish are always kept in an alkaline environment.

This would also explain why this reaction has not been observed in my tests with Melafix (even at double doses) with Labyrinth fish/Pencil fish since I conducted these tests in a balanced Redox mineral/electrolyte environment.

At this point my advice is to maintain a non acidic environment, proper mineralization and Redox, which is something I have been a big proponent of for many years now based on scientific evidence of the benefits therein.
Since most evidence points to this conclusion, this may be the link in this problem, especially since the TTO found in Melafix (and all terpenes) is a known Redox reducer and an acidic/oxidizing environment of ANY cause could cause possible undesirable effects.

Another evidence pointing toward this conclusion is that based in emails, browsing of Forums (Betta forums in particular), and speaking with clients and colleagues; is that in almost every case where Melafix has been a problem the person using this product was incorrectly keeping the Betta in an acidic, poorly mineralized, poor Redox environment of which they were unfortunately given misguided advice to do so.

This also brings up an important point about Melafix use in general for all fish and that is that both Melafix and Pimafix are acidic and negatively affect Redox Balance, so while these products certainly have their place in aquarium use, continued use will most definitely cause issues with Redox Balance and therefore long term fish immunity.
The use of products such as Wonder Shells can counteract this problem and these should definitely be used with Melafix (if only fragments of AAP Wonder Shells), however these are not the solution for long term use of Melafix and therefore use of Melafix for longer than 10 days should be avoided.

Product Resource: Wonder Shells; Unique Versions only from AAP

I recommend reading these articles:
Importance of Minerals, Electrolytes, GH, KH in Aquariums
Aquarium/Pond Redox

PLEASE reference this excellent university level study for more about the positives and negatives of Tea Tree oil found in Melafix:
Tea Tree Oil: a Review of Antimicrobial and Other Medicinal Properties

Also this excellent fact sheet from the University of Western Australia:
Tea tree oil has broad-spectrum in vitro antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral activity

DOSAGE: Refer to Melafix instructions or to purchase, please see this site:
API Treatments; Melafix

Further Resources:
http://www.rirdc.gov.au/reports/TTO/01-10.pdf
US Patent for Melafix
Is Gram Positive Tea Tree Oil Safe for Pets

Article Research Sponsor

NAPHTHOQUINONES

Naphthoquinones are compounds present in several families of higher plants.
Their molecular structures confer Redox properties, and they are involved in multiple biological oxidative processes.

In folk medicine plants containing Naphthoquinones (such as Henna) have been employed for the treatment of various diseases.
The two-electron reduction of quinones is catalyzed by oxidoreductase and generates hydroquinones. This enzyme reduces toxic, reactive and unstable quinones, bypassing the creation of toxic intermediates (e.g. a semiquinone radical), and sparing the cell from ROS formation.


A relatively new product that contains Naphthoquinones is Kordon Herbal Ich Attack & Rid Fungus.
This product stops infectious and external parasitic invasions from getting started and in turn prevents many secondary infections.
As well Herbal Ich Attack (aka Rid Fungus) attacks fungi in fresh water that include the species of Saprolegnia, Achlya, Leptomitus, Pythium, as well as marine (saltwater) Exophiala.

Ich-Attack is effective against protozoan parasites on fishes while safe for most aquatic invertebrates, whether fresh or brackish water, or marine.
These comprise dozens of genera and species of fish-infecting species in fresh and salt water, each kind with distinctive characteristics in their infections.
The groups include "white spot disease" and other ciliates (Ichthyophthirius in fresh water, and Cryptocaryon, Brooklynella, Trichodina in marine), and "sporozoan parasites" for which many infectors of aquarium fish are marine.

Dinoflagellate infections treated by Ich-Attack are photosynthetic single-celled organisms which include Oodinium (velvet disease), Amyloodinium (coral fish disease), Tetrahymena, as well as other infectious dinoflagellates.

Kordon Herbal Ich-Attack (aka Rid-Fungus) is especially suitable for tropical marine aquariums containing aquatic invertebrates, it also treats their fungal infections, while not adversely affecting coral reef animals, including corals, anemones, starfish, snails, crabs, and shrimp.

Herbal Ich-Attack was led/created by Dr. Michael Tierra (a well known herbalist whose books on natural botanical treatments are widely read) whose work to determine which herbals can be used together to cover a wide spectrum of external fungal and other aquatic diseases.

*As with Usnea, well controlled in depth tests of products containing Naphthoquinones such as Herbal Ich Attack have not been performed that I know of as of writing this update, however albeit somewhat anecdotal feedback from reliable aquarium maintenance professionals shows positive results, although these results also showed this treatment to not be as effective as similar chemical treatments such as SeaChem ParaGuard.

This feedback from these professionals has this product used with shrimp, snails, & crabs, for both fungus and Ich but 100% safety has not been confirmed with delicate corals or octopi.

Product Sources:
Herbal Ich Attack (aka Rid Fungus) from AAP
SeaChem ParaGuard

References:
http://www.thefreelibrary.com/Antimicro ... 0173925919
http://www.mdpi.com/1420-3049/14/11/4570/pdf



THERAPEUTIC OILS (Kordon Fish Therapy Bath)

Organic Natural Aquarium Medications, Kordon Fish Therapy BathTherapeutic oils have become very popular among many natural human health care professionals and have spun off such companies as "Young Living Essential Oils" and "DoTERRA Essential Oils", so use in fish is a natural progression in my view.
Evidences are still forth coming though, so use with caution and realize that established and proven safe methods such as Methylene Blue for fish baths still might be the better choice.

The therapeutic oils found in Kordon's Fish Therapy Bath have some science and proven use behind them (oils include citrus, neem, and lavender oils). Most notably the use of citrus oils to treat termites, fleas, etc. Lavender Oil also has repellant abilities.
It is however noteworthy that Lavenders ability to repel parasites is not proven, however Lavenders ability to calm does have more evidences to back it up and this can certainly be useful when giving a fish bath.

References:
Home Remedies for Fleas
Lavender- WebMD

Neem oil is reported to be effective as an insecticide as well as some anti-inflammation properties, anti-fungal and limited anti-bacterial (possibly tuberculosis), although anti-bacterial activity seems to indicate more effectiveness toward gram positive bacterium and most fish diseases are gram negative. It is noteworthy though that most evidences for neem oil are inconclusive and more importantly in young humans, internal absorption can be fatal.

References:
Neem Oil- Wikipedia
Neem Oil- WebMD

Where does this leave us with this product (Kordon Fish Therapy Bath in particular)?
While I am personally just beginning tests with this product, with cautious use it should be a reasonable alternative for Methylene Blue Fish baths, but should not be combined with any other medications unlike Methylene Blue.
I see its primary use for parasite prevention or treatment, not bacterial infection prevention or treatment.
Saprolegnia treatment/prevention may also be a viable use.

I would not substitute Kordon Fish Therapy Bath for Methylene Blue for fish suffering from ammonia poisoning, low oxygen damage, pH shock, or other bath medications such as Potassium Permanganate or combinations of Methylene Blue with Furan 2/Kanaplex or Maracyn Plus for more serious problems.

Product Resource: Kordon Fish Therapy Bath from AAP

Further Fish Bath Information:
Fish Baths, Swabs, Dips

Oregon grape root plant
OREGON GRAPE ROOT, as an aquarium (& pond) treatment;

Oregon Grape Root is one of those "wonder herbs" with actual science to back it up, unlike many "natural treatments". What is not proven is its effectiveness in aquarium or pond fish use, but based on the science around how this herb works, likely this will become an effective addition to many other proven aquarium treatments.

Oregon Grape Root has potential to aid in antibiotic effectiveness in treatment of difficult to treat diseases such as Columnaris as it contains a specific multi drug resistance pump inhibitor (MDR Inhibitor).
Resistant bacteria work by utilizing a pumping mechanism in its cell that when antibiotics enter that cell the pump immediately pumps out the antibiotics so it can have no effect on the MRSA cell. Oregon Grape Root works by blocking the bacteria's ability to pump out antibiotics.

Oregon Grape Root is a bitter herb with cooling, draining and detoxifying benefits.
Oregon grape root is also referred to as a “berberine-containing plant” which is a natural anti-bacterial.

Potential Treatment for:
Eye infections
External wounds
Mouth infections
Inflamation
Intestinal Parasites
Digestive issues, including Dropsy

AQUARIUM USE:
Suggested use is opening a 400 mg Oregon Grape Root Capsule into 10 gallons of water along with the antibiotics such as Nitrofurazone and Kanamycin. This can be added to the aquarium or a fish bath.
Use in conjunction with other medications is suggested in most moderate to serious infections.

Reference: Oregon Grape Root - It could save the world

Online Source for Oregon Grape Root (not affiliated with AAP):
*Solaray Oregon Grape Root Capsules
*Nutraceutical International Corp. (a leading provider of Oregon Grape Root)


USNEA LICHEN, usnic acid aquarium (& pond) treatment;

Please note that we have a more in depth article dealing with just Usnea for aquarium pond treatment, please visit this link:
USNEA; Using usnic acid as a fish remedy

USE;
Usnea is a lichen common to the temperate forests of the Pacific Northwest of the USA.

I have found it effective for bacterial (gram negative, but primarily positive), fungal and even parasites such ich.
A natural antibiotic it has proven effective against gram positive bacteria and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (making Usnea a great alternative to Isoniazid).
Scientists believe that usnic acid works by disrupting cellular metabolism, either by preventing the formation of ATP which is the cells' energy source or by the stopping the action of oxidative phosphorylization.

Usnea may also be a better choice than the drug metronidazole (as per human studies) for parasites and anaerobic bacterial treatments in aquariums.
Usnea shows promise for gill infections due to the Mucilage (gluey substance produced by most plants and some microorganisms) contained in the Usnea which has been shown to have healing properties in areas of respiration.

Usnea also shows promise as a safe albeit mild Cryptocaryon (saltwater ich) treatment for Marine Aquariums.
It has similar anti-parasite properties to metronidazole and pepper for marine cryptocaryon. (Usnea actually has a peppery taste when brewed).


More information about Usnea;
Test tube studies have suggested an anti-cancer and an anti-viral activity for usnic acid. This may also make Usnea useful for the hard to treat aquatic viral disease; Lymphocystis (which is usually not fatal in otherwise healthy fish).

Symptoms of Lymphocystis:
* Whitish patches or irregular growths on the fish most commonly on the tail and fins.
* These eventually become quite large and give rise to the name Cauliflower Disease.


This remedy is still in the testing phase, but early results when used in a "Fish Bath" are promising.
The Usnea Lichen is proving to be the most effective natural remedy early in my testing.

This lichen is boiled like a tea then added to a fish bath or occasionally directly to the aquarium.
The only dangers that have been established (in human studies) are in rare cases liver damage, which would make this a poor choice for dropsy.
Also use caution in Marine Treatment with sensitive invertebrates such as hard coral and cephalopods.


DOSAGE: None established yet. I boil one small sprig in 6 oz. of water.
Use 1 tablespoon per 6 oz. of this preparation for a 1 quart bath. Or add this 6 oz of "tea" to every 10-20 gallons of water every day until cure is effective plus an additional 2 days.

For my full article about Usnea, please visit this link:
USNEA; Using usnic acid as a fish remedy


If interested in some Usnea, you can purchase (.2 oz, enough for 200 gallons of treatment for $2.69) via the PayPal Pay Now button Below.

Amount

PayPal - The safer, easier way to pay online!


Microbe-Lift Herbtana Organic Aquarium Treatment
OTHERS; Such as Microbe-Lift Herbtana & Artemiss

There are many other organic/natural treatments coming into the aquarium/pond keeping marketplace.
Many unfortunately do not have much testing and worse do not list ingredients which then leaves questions as to whether any claimed effectiveness is simply the placebo effect or real.

Microbe-Lift's Herbtana is a good example of such a product that has little or no controlled testing and no published ingredients, but has some positive anecdotal reviews.
Since this product claims improved immune function, I would have to ask how?
Since it actually lowers Redox Balance being an acid and oxidizer it is impossible to improve immunity since it is a proven fact (including well funded human studies) that a healthy body is alkaline, not acid with a more reducing Redox.
From Microbe-Lifts own website:
Will help boost the natural immune system of the fish with no risk of building up future resistance as can occur when antibiotics are used"
This is simply impossible based on what we already know about this product and Redox

The fact this product is sold at discounters including Amazon, not professional aquarium supply companies does not lend itself to credibility when anecdotal reviews and lack of published ingredients are all factored in.

While I would not write off this product as there may may be other modes of operation other than immune system improvement, I will have to say for now that many controlled tests support products such as Herbal Ich Attack with its known ingredients as well as the even more 100s of tests supporting the use of Wonder Shells and Medicated Wonder Shells for both immune improvement and disease prevention (also with KNOWN proven ingredients).
Microbe-Lift needs to "step up to the plate" and publish their ingredients if they want this product to be taken seriously by professionals, rather than simply selling via discounters.









_________________
ReefCelsois III

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Evoluir é reconhecer nossos erros. Não para consertá-los, mas para não repetí-los. (Amanda Chakur)

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